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Name Alias(es): 
Vulcano Island
Vent Sites: 
Baia di Levante (= Porto di Levante)
Max Temperature Category: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
LTH, Fe & Mn oxides, amorphous silica, sulfates and pyritic tuffs
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
Vulcano stratovolcano; hydrothermal discharge on shores of volcanic island with precipitation of Fe & Mn oxides, silica, anhydrite, gypsum and pyrite within volcaniclastic sediments; Sedwick and Stueben (1996): "These fluids are interpreted as a mixture of seawater and low-salinity groundwater which has undergone high-temperature (> 100 °C) hydrothermal alteration, followed by mixing with cool seawater in the sub-seafloor and during venting."
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
Stetter (1982) discovery of hyperthermophilic life at greater than 100 C
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1960's shallow vents
Discovery References (text): 
[Honnorez (1969) La formation actuelle d'un gisement sous-marin de sulphides fumerolliens a Vulcano (Mer Tyrrhenienne), Partie I. Les Mineraux sulfures des tufs immerges a faible profondeur. Miner. Deposita, 4: 114-131.]
Other References (text): 
Stetter, K.O., 1982. Ultrathin mycelia-foming organisms from submarine volcanic areas having an optimum growth temperature of 105°C. Nature, London 300: 258-260.
Sedwick, P. and Stüben, D., 1996. Chemistry of shallow submarine warm springs in an arc-volcanic setting: Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy. Marine Chemistry 53, pp. 147–161, doi:10.1016/0304-4203(96)00020-5.
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367.
Dekov, V. M. and C. Savelli (2004) Hydrothermal activity in the SE Tyrrhenian Sea: an overview of 30 years of research. Marine Geology 204: 161-185.
Dando, P. R. (2010) Biological communities at marine shallow-water vent and seep sites. In: Kiel, S. (Ed.) The vent and seep biota – from microbes to ecosystems. Topics in Geobiology 33: 33-378. Springer.