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About the Database

Purpose of the database
Database contents
Versions 3.X
Versions 2.X
An abbreviated history of the database - Version 1
Download version documentation
Download ISO-19115 compatible metadata

Purpose of the database
The purpose of the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields, hereafter referred to as the “InterRidge Vents Database,” is to provide a comprehensive list of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields for use in academic research and education. As stated by the InterRidge Working Group (WG) on Global Distribution of Hydrothermal Activity (InterRidge News 9.1, April 2000): “The idea of this data-base is that it should become the international standard for all known sites of submarine hydrothermal activity which can be updated simply by submitting an electronic message to the InterRidge Office."

Database contents
Each Vent Field contains the following attributes (“columns” in the exported CSV file). If there is no value reported for an attribute, then it is not currently specified in the database.
Name of vent field

The Name ID uniquely identifies a vent field. We distinguish vent field (assemblage of vent sites) from vent site (e.g., Tica vent at EPR, 9 50'N vent field).
Name alias(es) for vent field
Other Names used in the literature for the same vent field.
Feature ID in MGDS
The Name ID is associated with controlled vocabularies for Feature_ID VentField in MGDS (
Name(s) of individual vent sites
Names of individual vent sites contained within the vent field. Aliases for vent site names are given in parentheses with an equals sign, such as “Solwara 4e (= Fenway).” These may be associated with controlled vocabularies for Feature_ID Vent in MGDS.
Hydrothermal activity is categorized as: confirmed active, inferred active, or inactive. We consider the activity confirmed when indicated by visual observations at the sea floor (i.e., ground-truthing) that may or may not also include temperature measurements.
Maximum Temperature
Maximum Temperature Category

Maximum temperature (degrees C) is provided for confirmed active vent fields; the “cell” is blank if inferred active and “NotApplicable” if inactive. For those confirmed active vent fields in which a maximum temperature is NotProvided, a category is assigned as High if chimneys and/or black smokers were observed or Low if only diffuse venting was observed. Again, the “cell” is blank if inferred active and “NotApplicable” if inactive.

Positions are provided in decimal degrees to four decimal places. Negative values for latitude are degrees S, and negative values for longitude are degrees W.
Location on map
The position for each vent field is displayed individually in a OpenSeaMap, Map data © OpenStreetMap contributors (using Leaflet module).
The 8 ocean categories conform with the InterRidge Cruise Database: Arctic, Indian, Mediterranean, N. Atlantic, N. Pacific, S. Atlantic, S. Pacific, Southern. Following the standards of the International Hydrographic Organization, the Arctic Ocean includes the mid-ocean ridge north of Iceland, and the Southern Ocean is defined as south of latitude 60 S.
Region generally indicates the regional setting of the vent field along the world plate boundaries. Exceptions include vent fields at intra-plate volcanoes and coastal faults. The Region tends to form part of the hierarchical vocabulary for each vent field Name Feature_ID VentField in MGDS.
National Jurisdiction
National Jurisdiction within exclusive economic zones (EEZs) was determined by querying the VLIZ Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase ( using the latitude and longitude for each vent field. Positions outside of EEZs are reported as high seas; note that these are seafloor positions thus they may lie either in The Area (the seafloor beyond the limits of national jurisdiction) or on extended continental shelves.
Maximum or Single Reported Depth
Minimum Depth

Depth (m below sea level) is given for hydrothermal activity and/or deposits. Either a range (deepest-shallowest) or single reported depth is provided.
Tectonic Setting Category
Each vent field was assigned to 1 of 5 tectonic setting categories: arc volcano, back-arc spreading center, intra-plate volcano, mid-ocean ridge, or other.
Full Spreading Rate
For each vent field categorized as mid-ocean ridge or back-arc spreading center, the full spreading rate velocity (mm/a) was derived from Bird (2003), accessed via GeoMapApp, with the exception of literature values for New Hebrides, Tyrrhenian, and Izu-Bonin back-arc regions.
Volcano Number
Some vent fields are sub-features of volcanic features identified with a permanent unique identifier (Volcano Number, or VNum) in the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) Volcanoes of the World (VOTW) database maintained by GVP and accessible at
Host Rock
Host rock is from a spreadsheet provided by S. Petersen in 2009, otherwise categorized as basalt-hosted, sediment-hosted, ultramafic-hosted, or NotProvided. Host rock is not comprehensively vetted for all vent fields.
Deposit Type
Deposit type is listed from Version 1 or from a spreadsheet provided by M. Hannington in 2009, otherwise NotProvided. Abbreviations include: polymetallic massive sulfide deposits (PMS), low-temperature hydrothermal vents and associated mineral deposits (LTH), near-field metalliferous sediments (NFS), distal metalliferous sediments (DIS), and vein and breccia deposits (VSD). Deposit type is not comprehensively vetted for all vent fields.
Notes on Vent Field description
Notes describing the vent field are generally quoted directly from the literature. However, some of the site descriptions remain from Version 1 and may be similar to the “Description” in the ISA Database. This “column” in the database also contains notes relevant to other “columns,” for example, providing more information on the regional or tectonic setting.
Notes relevant to biology
Notes on biology are generally quoted directly from the literature. However, some of these notes remain from Version 1.
Year and how discovered
For the year and means by which discovered, visual confirmation at the sea floor is listed first, unless otherwise noted. Other information related to the discovery is listed in chronological order.
References for discovery
Other citations

References in brackets “[ ]” were not consulted in full by the InterRidge Coordinator.
RDF link
A direct link is provided to the *.rdf depiction of each vent field "node" in the Drupal database.

Versions 3.X
In Versions 3.X the InterRidge Vents Database has joined the semantic web of Linked Data. We migrated the database to Drupal 7, still an open source content management system and now with Resource Description Framework (RDF) web services in its core. We implemented additional contributed modules for query over the web using the SPARQL standard. Most database content and taxonomy terms are currently mapped to default RDF namespaces, with three important exceptions: we mapped the “vent field” content type to (1) an rdf:type for hydrothermal vents in a semantic knowledge base (; in Version 3.3 we also mapped to and (2) to an rdf:type for geographical features from the Open Geospatial Consortium (, and (3) we mapped the latitude and longitude positions of the vent fields to a semantic vocabulary for the WGS84 geodetic reference datum ( Another new feature in Versions 3.X is live mapping of vent field positions.

Version 3.4 - current version
Version 3.4 was completed on 25 March 2020 and and is published at PANGAEA® Data Publisher:
Beaulieu, Stace E; Szafrański, Kamil M (2020) InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields Version 3.4. PANGAEA, (temporary link
Version 3.4 is the present live site hosted by IPGP, France. Ver. 3.4 launched on 13 October 2016 and had the same listings as Ver. 3.3 until 29 May 2017. Starting from 8 October 2018, the position for each vent field in the Interactive Map is displayed on the OpenSeaMap, Map data ©OpenStreetMap contributors (using Leaflet module). The total number of listings in the completed Ver. 3.4 is 721 (33 more than Version 3.3), with 666 confirmed or inferred active and 55 inactive (please note: the database is not comprehensive for inactive vent fields). The following additions and edits to "vent fields" in the database were performed from 29 May 2017 to 25 March 2020:
Added 36 (Ægir; Daisan-Kume Knoll; Dorado Outcrop; FRSC, 11a-3; FRSC, 14b, 16.11 S; FRSC, 14b, 16.31 S; FRSC, T12A-01; Futagoyama; Guaymas Basin, Northern Trough_2; Hafa Adai; Higa; Higashi-Ensei; Luso; MAR, 17 S; MAR, 25 S; MAR, 30.8 S; MAR, 31 S; Mariana Trough, 14.5 N; Mariana Trough, 15.5 N; Mariana Trough, 16.5 N; Mariana Trough, 18.2 N; Mohns Ridge, 72.8 N; MTJ, V12A-04; NELSC, T08C09 and T08C18; Perseverance; SEIR-WXC02; SEIR-WXC06; SEIR-WXC07; SEIR-WXC12; SEIR-WXC15; SEIR-WXC17; SEIR-WXC22; SEIR-WXC25; SEIR-WXC27; Tangyin; Yokosuka).
Edited 98 (13 N Ridge Site; Alice Springs Field; Ashadze-1; Ashadze-2; Ashadze-3; Ashadze-4; Atlantis II Deep; Banua Wuhu submarine volcano; Chamorro volcano; Dellwood Seamount; Deyin-1; Duanqiao; East Mata submarine volcano; El Hierro, Tagoro; EPR, southern 16 N segment; Explorer Deep; FRSC, Central; FRSC, Fonualei South; FRSC, South Central; FRSC, RC 129 and CTD 24 plume sites; GEISEIR site 2, segment J4; High-Rise Field; Irinovskoye; Isafjardardjup bay; Komba-ridge; Kueishantao; Logatchev-1; Logatchev-2; Logatchev-3; Logatchev-4; Logatchev-5; Loki's Castle; Longqi; Main Endeavour Field; Maka; Manuk Island; MAR, 19 S; MAR, 23 S; MAR, 27 S; MAR, 28 S; MAR, 30 S; MAR, 33 S; Mariana Trough, Central Trough; Mariana Trough, plume 2; Mata Fa; Mata Fitu; Mata Nima; Mata Ono; Mata Taha; Mata Tolu; Mata Ua; Merian; Methana; Middle Valley, Bent Hill Massive Sulfide; Middle Valley, Dead Dog Vent Field; Mohns Ridge, 72 N; Mothra Field; MTJ, PAPATUA; MTJ, T08C01; MTJ, T08C03, 15.72 S; MTJ, T08C03 and T08C04; MTJ, T08C05; NELSC, T08C12; Niuatahi; Niua North; Niua South; Panarea; Perseverance; Pescadero Basin, Auka; Petersburgskoe; Pika; Pobeda-1; Pulau Weh; Puy des Folles; Rainbow Bay; Ringvent; Sakai; Salty Dawg Field; Sasquatch Field; Saldanha; Semyenov-2; Seven Sisters; Snail; Soria Maria; SPOT, Yonaguni Knoll IV; Starfish Seamount, Tinakula; Tafu; Tahi Moana 1; Tahi Moana 7; TaiJi; Tarama Knoll; Tiancheng; TOTO Caldera; Troll Wall; Vema Fracture Zone; Vityaz megamullion; West Mata submarine volcano; Zouyu ridge).
Removed 3 (Middle Valley, ODP Mound - merged with Middle Valley, Bent Hill Massive Sulfide; MTJ, T08C02; MTJ, T08C03, 15.78 S).
Version 3.4 was used in the following:
- Ardyna, M., Lacour, L., Sergi, S., et al. (2019) Hydrothermal vents trigger massive phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Nat Commun, 10, 2451
- Beaulieu, S.E., Brickley, A., (2019) Animals on the Move and Deep‐Sea Vents: Dataset for Spherical Display Systems, DOI:10.26025/8ke9-av98,
- Chapman, A.S.A., S.E. Beaulieu, A. Colaco, et al. (2019) sFDvent: A global trait database for deep‐sea hydrothermal‐vent fauna. Global Ecology and Biogeography,
- Menini, E., & Van Dover, C.L. (2019) An atlas of protected hydrothermal vents. Marine Policy, 108, 103654,
- Ocean+ Data,
- Orcutt, B.N., et al. (2020) Impacts of deep‐sea mining on microbial ecosystem services. Limnology and Oceanography,
- Salcedo DL, Soto LA, Paduan JB (2019) Trophic structure of the macrofauna associated to deep-vents of the southern Gulf of California: Pescadero Basin and Pescadero Transform Fault. PLoS ONE, 14(11), e0224698,
- Schmid, F., et al. (2019) Physico-chemical properties of newly discovered hydrothermal plumes above the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (13°-33°S). Deep Sea Res Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 148, 34-52,
- Thaler, A. D., & Amon, D. (2019) 262 Voyages Beneath the Sea: a global assessment of macro- and megafaunal biodiversity and research effort at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. PeerJ, 7, e7397,
- Van Dover, C.L., Arnaud-Haond, S., Gianni, M., et al. (2018) Scientific rationale and international obligations for protection of active hydrothermal vent ecosystems from deep-sea mining. Marine Policy, 90, 20-28,

Additional citations in Google Scholar

The database was offline June - September 2016.

Version 3.3
Version 3.3 was hosted by InterRidge China from May 2015 - May 2016 (with listings completed in September 2015). The total number of listings in Ver. 3.3 was 688, with 632 confirmed or inferred active and 56 inactive (please note: the database is not comprehensive for inactive vent fields). Ver. 3.3 had two structural changes to the content type “vent field”: 1) we added an rdf:type to match to, and 2) we added a database record field to link to the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program volcano profile for those vent fields that are sub-features of these identified volcanic features. We updated the National Jurisdiction taxonomy terms to the VLIZ Maritime Boundaries Geodatabase, version 8 (Added 16: Brunei; Colombia : Quitasueno; Colombia : Serrara; Disputed : Kenya/Somalia; Disputed : Sudan/Egypt; Disputed : Trinidad and Tobago/Venezuela/Guyana; Disputed : Western Sahara/Mauritania; Jordan; Overlap : Australia/Indonesia; split France : Guadeloupe and Martinique into France : Guadeloupe and France : Martinique; split Netherlands : Netherlands Antilles into Netherlands : Aruba, Netherlands : Bonaire, and Netherlands : Curacao; split United States : Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands of the United States into United States : Puerto Rico and United States : Virgin Islands of the United States; split Netherlands : Southern Saint Martin into Netherlands : Sint-Maarten, Netherlands : Sint-Eustasius, and Netherlands : Saba; split Norway into Norway and Norway : Svalbard; Edited 4: Disputed: Russia-Japan Conflict Zone; Joint Regime: Japan - Korea; Montenegro; Vietnam; Removed 2: Denmark : Bornholm; Disputed : Chile/Peru).
The following additions and edits to "vent fields" in the database were performed from 26 May 2015 to 16 Sept. 2015 (the date on which the Version 3.3 kml file was produced with 632 confirmed or inferred active vent fields):
Added 94 (Alarcon Rise, Ja Sit; Alarcon Rise, Meyibo; Alarcon Rise, Tzab-ek; Alarcon Rise/Pescadero intersection; Alarcon Rise/Tamayo intersection; Area JX; Bai Causeway; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 1; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 2; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 3; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 4, 10.9 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 4, 11.2 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 5, 12.25 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 5, 12.6 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 6, 14.3 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 7; Daiichi-Amami Knoll; El Hierro; Espalamaca; FRSC, Fonualei South; GEISEIR site 4, segment K1; GEISEIR site 6, segment K2; GEISEIR site 8, segment K3; GEISEIR site 9, segment K3; GEISEIR site 11, segment K4; GEISEIR site 12, segment K4; GEISEIR site 13, segment L1; GEISEIR site 14, segment L1; GEISEIR site 15, segment L1; GEISEIR site 16, segment L3; GEISEIR site 17, segment L3; GEISEIR site 18, segment L3; GEISEIR site 19, segment L3; GEISEIR site 20, segment L3; GEISEIR site 21, segment L3; GEISEIR site 23, segment M2; GEISEIR site 24, segment M3; GEISEIR site 25, segment M4; GEISEIR site 26, segment M4; GEISEIR site 27, segment M5; GEISEIR site 28, segment M6; GEISEIR site 29, segment M6; GEISEIR site 30, segment O1; GEISEIR site 31, segment O1; GEISEIR site 32, segment O2; GEISEIR site 33, segment O2; GEISEIR site 34, segment O3; GEISEIR site 35, segment O3; GEISEIR site 36, segment O3; GEISEIR site 37, segment O4; GEISEIR site 38, segment O4; Guaymas Basin, Northern Trough off-axis; Isafjardardjup bay; Landing Stage; Manuk Island; MAR, 17 09'N; MAR, 15 S; MAR, 19 S; MAR, 23 S; MAR, 27 S; MAR, 28 S; MAR, 30 S; MAR, 33 S; MAR, segment south of St. Paul system; Merian; Mohns Ridge, 72 N; Montserrat-Marie Galante fault; MTJ, t08c01; MTJ, t08c02; MTJ, t08c03, 15.63 S; MTJ, t08c03, 15.72 S; MTJ, t08c03, 15.78 S; MTJ, t08c05; NELSC, t08c12; NE Pual; Niua North; NWLSC, Southern Caldera; Omuro Hole; Pegasus; Pescadero Basin, Auka; Prony Bay; Ribeira Quente; San Felipe; Sangeang Island; Seven Sisters; South Sarigan Seamount; Su Causeway; Tafu; Tarama Knoll; Tempus Fugit; Uka Pacha; VC7; White Island; Yali).
Edited 211 (AAR KR1, Mujin; AAR KR2; Ahyi; Akuseki-jima; Animal Farm; Area EX/FX; Aurora; Axial Seamount, ASHES; Axial Seamount, CASM; Axial Seamount, International District; Bahia Concepcion; Baily's Beads; Banda Api; Banua Wuhu; Bataan; Bayonnaise Knoll caldera; Beebe; Boomerang Seamount; Bounty Seamount; Brothers volcano; Calypso Vents; Capo Miseno; Carlsberg Ridge, 63 50'E; Champagne Hot Springs; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 4, 11.3 S; CIR, 8-17 S, Segment 6, 14.75 S; Clark volcano; Daikoku; Deception Island; Dodo Field; Don Joao de Castro Bank; Douglas Strait; Doyo Seamount; Dragon; Dugong; East Blanco Depression; East Diamante; East Mata; Edmond Field; EPR, 9 50'N; EPR, 10 44.6'N; EPR, southern 17 N segment; EPR, 7 S; EPR, 7 25'S; EPR, 15 S; EPR 18 10'S; EPR, Ridge 1, 20 40'S; EPR, Ridge 3, 20 40'S; EPR, 22 30'S; Enarete Seamount; Eolo Seamount; Epi Caldera; Esmeralda Bank; ESR, E2; ESR, E9; Europa; Eva; Extensional Relay Zone A; Flow; Forecast; Fukujin; Gakkel Ridge, 85 E; Gamble volcanic center; GEISEIR site 1, segment J2; GEISEIR site 2, segment J4; GEISEIR site 3, segment J4; GEISEIR site 5, segment K1; GEISEIR site 7, segment K3; GEISEIR site 10, segment K4; GEISEIR site 22, segment L3; Gemini-Oscostar; Giggenbach volcano; Gorda Ridge, EP96A; Grimsey Field; Haungaroa; Havre; Healy volcano; Hinepuia volcanic center; Hinetapeka; Hot Beach; Iheya Ridge; Irabu Knoll; Ischia Island; Izena Hole; Jaco Scar; Kagamil Island; Kagoshima Bay; Kaikata Seamount; Kairei; Kana Keoki; Kasuga 1; Kasuga 2; Kavachi; Kick'em Jenny; Kilo Moana; Knipovich Ridge, 75 N; Knipovich Ridge, 76 48'N; Knipovich Ridge, 77 40'N; Kolumbo; Komba-ridge; Kos; Krakatau; Kraternaya bight; Kueishan Island; Kuiwai; Kulo Lasi; Kurose Hole; Kuwae; Lembeh Strait; Leyte; Lobster; Loihi Seamount; Loki's Castle; Luise Harbor; Macauley Caldera; Macdonald Seamount; Main Endeavour Field; Maka; Makhahnas; Markov Deep; Mariner; Marsili; Mata Fitu; Mata Tolu; Mata Ua; Matupi Harbour; Maug; MESO Zone; Methana; Milos; Minami-Ensei Knoll; Minami-Hiyoshi; Mokuyo Seamount; Monowai Caldera; Monowai Cone; Montserrat Offshore Springs; Moytirra; MTJ, PAPATUA; Myojin Knoll; Myojinsho; Nagahama Bay; Naung; Nereus Deep; NESCA; Ngatoroirangi; Nifonea Ridge; Nikko; Nishinoshima Island; Nisiros; Niua South; North Cleft, high temperature; North Knoll, Iheya Ridge; NE Anatahan; Northwest Eifuku; NWLSC, Central Caldera; NW Rota-1; Not Dead Yet; Palinuro; Panarea; Paramushir Island; Piip; Pika; Precious Stone Mountain; Pulau Weh; Putoto volcanic center; Rainbow; Rakahore volcanic center; Rehu-Marka; Romanche Fracture Zone; Rose Garden; Ruby; Rumble II West; Rumble III; Rumble V; Santorini; Seamount X; Snail; Solwara 17; Sonne; Soria Moria; Stanton Seamount; Starfish Seamount; Station 58, N160 Axis; Stockwork; Stromboli; Suiyo Seamount; Sumisu Caldera; Sumisu Rift; Tahi Moana 7; Tangaroa volcano; Teahitia seamount; Teotihuacan; Tonga Arc, Volcano A; Tonga Arc, Volcano 1; Tonga Arc, Volcano 19;Troll Wall; Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island; Vai Lili; Vailulu'u Seamount; Volcano O; Von Damm; Vulcano; Vulkanolog; Walsh; West Mata; West Valley; Whale Island; White Lady; Wright volcanic center; Yoron Hole; Zealandia).
Removed 3 (Kermadec Arc, Volcano L combined into Giggenbach; New Hebrides Arc, Volcano A combined into Cioan renamed Epi Caldera; SWIR, 63.5 E combined into SWIR, Plume 4).
Version 3.3 was used in the following:
- Broad, W.J. (2016) The 40,000-mile volcano. New York Times, Jan. 12, 2016,
- Mullineaux, L.M., Metaxas, A., Beaulieu, S.E., et al. (2018) Exploring the Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in a Metacommunity Framework. Front. Mar. Sci.,

Version 3.2
Version 3.2 was hosted by InterRidge China from July 2013 - May 2015 (with listings completed in October 2014). The total number of listings in Version 3.2 was 597 (3 more than Version 2.2), with 541 confirmed or inferred active and 56 inactive (please note: the database is not comprehensive for inactive vent fields). The following additions and edits were performed from July 2013 - October 2014:
Added 3 (CIR, Segment 4; Precious Stone Mountain; Yoron Hole).
Edited 23 (AAR KR1; AAR KR2; Beebe; Calyfield; Calypso; CIR, Segment 6; Dodo; ESR, E9; Eye of Mordor Seamount; E Eye of Mordor; W Eye of Mordor; Hinepuia; Iguanas-Pinguinos; Iheya North; Irabu Knoll; E Los Huellos Caldera; W Los Huellos Caldera; Steinaholl; SuSu Knolls; Tonga Arc, Volcano 1; Tonga Arc, Volcano 14; Tonga Arc, Volcano 18; Tonga Arc, Volcano 19).
Version 3.2 was used in the following:
- The InterRidge Vents Database was used by the CBD in the workshops to facilitate the description of EBSAs, for example, UNEP/CBD/EBSA/WS/2014/2/4, 26 May 2014,
- Martin, C.S., et al. (2015) A global map to aid the identification and screening of critical habitat for marine industries. Marine Policy, 53, 45-53,

Version 3.1
Version 3.1 in Drupal 7.21 was hosted on a WHOI server (April - May 2013) as a development site prior to transfer to InterRidge China. Version 3.1 has the same vent field listings as Versions 2.2/2.3/3.0. Upgrades in Ver. 3.1 include the use of Display Suite module, for clickable RDF link within each Vent Field node, and new path aliases: “/ventfield/”.

Version 3.0
Ver 3.0 was hosted on a WHOI server (December 2012 - April 2013) for development prior to transfer to InterRidge China office. Version 3.0 has the same vent field listings as Versions 2.2/2.3.
Version 3.0 was used in the following:
- Arko, R., C. Chandler, K. Stocks, S. Smith, P. Clark, A. Shepherd, C. Moore, and S. Beaulieu (2013) Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research. EGU General Assembly, abstract #EGU2013-9564.

Versions 2.X
For the revision to Versions 2.X, S. Beaulieu merged 4 spreadsheets of global vent fields: 1) the Version 1 spreadsheet (212 listings), 2) a spreadsheet from E. Baker and available at NOAA Vents Program website (version 19 Aug. 2009), 3) a spreadsheet from M. Hannington (version 11 Aug. 2009, in preparation for revision of ISA Database), and 4) a spreadsheet from S. Petersen (version 30 Sep. 2009), in particular for vent field maximum temperature and host rock. After the merger of the 4 spreadsheets (which resulted in 462 listings), an additional 92 vent fields were added from the primary literature and from cruise reports and press releases for the most recent discoveries through the end of 2009.
The Versions 2.X of the database were posted online in an open source Drupal 6 Content Management System. Taxonomy terms with controlled vocabulary were introduced for Activity, Tectonic Setting, Region, Ocean, National Jurisdiction, and Maximum Temperature Category. Each unique Vent Field Name ID was matched to a hierarchical vocabulary Feature ID for the same vent field in the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).

Version 2.3
Ver 2.3 was hosted on a WHOI server in December 2012 for development to Version 3. We removed all references that were uploaded for the Biblio module but not used in Ver 2.0. The Biblio module was not installed on the UK server and thus was not active in Ver 2.1 and 2.2. We updated the taxonomy for MGDS Feature ID, removing all Feature ID's that were suggested in Ver. 2.0 but not in the MGDS vocabulary accessed 21 Dec. 2012. We assigned each vent field to existing MGDS Feature IDs at the lowest possible level in the hierarchy (e.g., most N EPR vent fields were assigned simply to Feature ID EPR). We changed region taxonomy Tadjoura Rift to Aden Ridge.
No vent fields were added or removed, and the following vent fields were edited: AAR KR1; AAR KR2; Bataan; Eyjafjordur; Leyte; Volcano O.

Version 2.2
Version 2.2 was served at the NOCS (UK) through January 2013 then transferred to and hosted at the InterRidge China office. Ver. 2.2 consisted of edits from 25 January - 15 October 2012. This site will remain live through the end of 2013 at, to allow for links from the 2011 kml release.
7 new vent fields were added (AAR KR1; AAR KR2; Carlsberg Ridge, 63 40'E; Carlsberg Ridge, 63 50'E; MAR, 4 02'S; Stockwork; Von Damm) and 1 was removed (Raven was incorporated into MEF), thus bringing the total to 594 listed vent fields.
Vent fields edited with additional information include: Beebe; Enarete; High Rise; Kos; Main Endeavour Field (MEF); Milos; Mothra; Nereus Deep; Salty Dawg; Sasquatch; Whale Island.
Added references to: Axial ASHES; Dodo; Guaymas (Southern Trough Ridge); High Rise; Iheya North; Main Endeavour Field; Milos; Mothra; Salty Dawg; Sasquatch; Solitaire.

Version 2.1
Upload of Version 2.1 was completed on 8 November 2011. Version 2.1 was comprehensive through the end of 2009 for active submarine hydrothermal vent fields (plus 4 added and 1 removed through end 2009 in Ver. 2.2, see below). 84 of the vent fields in Version 2.0 were edited with additional information. 35 vent fields were added to the database (14 of these were discovered in 2010 or 2011). One vent field was deleted from the database since it turned out to be equivalent to an existing listing. Thus, the total number of listings in Version 2.1 was 588 (34 more than Version 2.0). 532 of these listings were confirmed or inferred active. 56 of these listings were inactive (please note: the database is not comprehensive for inactive vent fields).
Changes to taxonomy: Activity changed from “Active” to “Active, confirmed” and from “Unconfirmed” to “Active, inferred”.
Additions to taxonomy: Added 2 regions: Andaman Basin; Costa Rica fore arc.
Removal from taxonomy: Removed 1 region: Aleutian Arc, eastern.
Edited 84 vent fields (13 N Ridge Site; 94SO2; Ashadze 4; Bahia Concepcion; Banua Wuhu; Bayonnaise Knoll; Brothers volcano; Brown Bear; Capo Miseno; Capo Palinuro; central Manus Basin; CLSC, A3; Dodo Field; East Diamante; EPR, 9 50'N; EPR, 10 08’N; EPR, 10 44.6’N; EPR, 11 24’N; EPR, 26.5S; Esmeralda Bank; ESR, E9; “ET”; Europa; FRSC, South Central; Gemini-Oscostar Volcanic Complex; Giggenbach; Grover; Healy; Hot Beach; Kagamil Island; Kana Keoki; Kasuga 2; Komba-ridge; Kueishan Island; Kueishan Island, offshore; Logatchev-3; Loki's Castle; Marsili; Mata Tolu; Maug Caldera; Methana; Milos; Minami-Hiyoshi; Moytirra; Naung; Nagahama Bay; NELCO; Nifonea Ridge; Nishinoshima; Nisiros; Palinuro; Piccard; Pika; Raven; Rumble III; Santorini; Semyenov; Snail; Solitaire Field; Solwara 11; Solwara 13; Solwara 16; Solwara 17; Solwara 18; Solwara 19; Soria Moria; Stanton Seamount; Starfish Seamount; Steinaholl; Sulawesi Island; Sumisu Caldera; SuSu Knolls; Tahi Moana 2; Tahi Moana 7; Temakons; Teotihuacan; TELVE; Troll Wall; Vienna Woods, Hydrothermal Field 4; Vulcano; West Mata; White Church; White Point; Yonaguni Knoll IV).
Added 35 vent fields (Adventure Caldera; Akuseki-jima; Baily's Beads; Bubbylon; Central Andaman Trough, rift valley; Central Andaman Trough, seamount crater; Central Cleft, off-axis; Chile Triple Junction; Chile Triple Junction, 10 km north; CIR, northern; Consag Basin; EPR, 10 02'N; Ischia Island; Jaco Scarp; Jade Emperor Mountain; Kawio Barat; Kemp Caldera; Kodakara-jima; Krakatau; Kulo Lasi; Mata Fa; Mata Fitu; Mata Nima; Mata Ono; Mata Taha; Mata Ua; near Jade Emperor Mountain, on-axis; Pulau Weh; Rainbow Bay; St. Petersburg; Secca del Capo; Sisifo; Tai Chi; Wagner Basin; Walsh).
Removed 1 vent field from Ver. 2.0: SPOT-5 was incorporated into Yonaguni Knoll IV.
Version 2.1 was used in the following:
- 02/12, Ocean Sciences Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT: Beaulieu, S.E., Baker, E.T., and German, C.R. “On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later” Abstract A0495.
- 12/12, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA: Beaulieu, S.E., Baker, E.T., and German, C.R. “On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later” OS22B-01.
- Beaulieu, S.E., E.T. Baker, C.R. German, and A. Maffei (2013) An authoritative global database for active submarine hydrothermal vent fields. Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 14, 4892–4905, doi:10.1002/2013GC004998. (As of July 2017, this paper describing the InterRidge Vents Database had been cited by 47 publications in Google Scholar and 33 in Web of Science.)
- UNEP GRID Arendal's Green Economy in a Blue World. Minerals (
- Ballard, R. (2013) Expanded Boundaries and Hidden Treasures. National Geographic, November 2013, 80-85 (
- Beaulieu, S.E., Brickley, A., Spargo, A., Joyce, K., Silva, T., Patterson, K., Madin, K., Emery, M. (2014) Global viewport to deep-sea vents: dataset for spherical display systems. 11 September 2014, Version 1. Woods Hole Open Access Server. Accessed: 24 September 2014. URL:; DOI: 10.1575/1912/6867.
- United Nations First Global Integrated Marine Assessment (World Ocean Assessment I) Chapter 45. Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps,
- Mitarai, S., Watanabe, H., Nakajima, Y., Shchepetkin, A.F., and McWilliams, J.C. (2016) Quantifying dispersal from hydrothermal vent fields in the western Pacific Ocean. PNAS, 113, 2976-2981, doi:10.1073/pnas.1518395113.
- Casadevall, T. J., Tormey, D., and Roberts, J. (2019). World Heritage Volcanoes: Classification, gap analysis, and recommendations for future listings. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. viii + 68pp,

Version 2.0 had more than double the number of vent field listings (554 in the 5 March 2010 release) vs. Version 1 (212). Version 2.0 was intended to be comprehensive for active and inferred active (unconfirmed) submarine hydrothermal vent fields discovered through the end of 2009 (but see additions to Ver. 2.1 below). The full list of vent fields could be exported as a comma-separated-value (CSV) file. (Note: During the update to Ver. 2.1, we realized that the CSV output for Ver. 2.0 was only including the first name alias and the first vent site listed for each vent field.)
Version 2.0 was migrated from WHOI to NOCS server in Aug. 2010. In March 2011 we discovered that the initial upload of the database had not uploaded minimum depth 0. We updated this for the following vent fields (and some of the vent fields edited in Version 2.1, listed below): Deception Island; Kos; Kraternaya Bight; Luise Harbor; Matupi Harbor; Methana; Montserrat Volcano; Punta Santa Barbara; Santorini. We revised the Name IDs for Bataan, Chamorro volcano, Clark volcano, Fukujin volcano, Rumble V volcano, Nikko volcano, NW Eifuku, and TOTO Caldera in addition to edits made for several Kermadec arc and Mariana arc volcanoes listed in Ver. 2.1 below.
Version 2.0 was used in the following publications:
- Aldhous, P. (2011) Deep sea gold rush: Mining hydrothermal vents. New Scientist 2819, June 2011.
- Hannington, M., J. Jamieson, T. Monecke, S. Petersen, and S. Beaulieu (2011) The abundance of seafloor massive sulfide deposits. Geology 39: 1155-1158, doi:10.1130/G32468.1.
- Van Dover, C.L. (2011) Tighten regulations on deep-sea mining. Nature 470: 31-33.
- Chown, S.L. (2012) Antarctic Marine Biodiversity and Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents. PLoS Biol. 10(1): e1001232, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001232.

An abbreviated history of the database - Version 1
The original motivation for the database came from the WG on Global Distribution of Hydrothermal Activity, active from 1997-2002. Version 1 of the database was largely derived from M. Hannington’s compilation of the worldwide distribution of seafloor polymetallic sulfide deposits produced for the Geological Survey of Canada in 1994 with a supplement for shallow hydrothermal systems in 1999. Version 1 was posted online by the InterRidge Japan office (2000-2003) and transferred to the Germany office (2004-2006). In parallel, during the decade 2000-2009, M. Hannington updated and enhanced the database for seafloor hydrothermal deposits, published in 2002 for the Central Data Repository of the International Seabed Authority (hereafter referred to as the “ISA Database”). The ISA Database was revised in 2004 and in 2009. Also in parallel, E. Baker maintained a list of locations at which hydrothermal plumes were detected in systematic, water-column surveys for hydrothermal activity, and S. Petersen maintained another list that included vent field maximum temperature and host rock.

The InterRidge Vents Database is supported by the InterRidge program for international cooperation in ridge-crest studies ( For the revision to Version 2.0, we greatly appreciate access to global lists of vent fields from E. Baker, M. Hannington, and S. Petersen. V. Ferrini helped match vocabulary to the MGDS Feature IDs. A. Maffei and J. Dusenberry aided the upload into Drupal 6. D. Perry and M. Suominen aided the transfer to NOCS. For the revision to Version 2.1, we also thank E. Baker, P. Dando, and C. De Ronde. For revisions to Ver. 2.3, 3.0, and 3.1, S. Beaulieu was supported by NSF award #1202977 and a WHOI Technical Staff Award. We thank A. Maffei and A. Shepherd for the migration to Drupal 7. For revisions to Ver. 3.2 and 3.3, S. Beaulieu was supported by NSF award #1202977. We thank X. Zhang and Z. Ge for maintaining the Drupal 7 site at Peking Univ. For the launch of Ver. 3.4 we thank Y. Choi at IPGP. K. Szafranski (InterRidge Coordinator) revised Ver. 3.4 with S. Beaulieu (supported by NSF awards #1558904 and #1829773).

Download version documentation
For more information, please consult the Version 2 and Version 3 documentation (PDFs attached below) or contact the InterRidge Coordinator.

Download ISO-19115 compatible metadata
We thank the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) for preparing ISO-19115 compatible metadata for the InterRidge Vents Database. Please access the PDF file and the XML file for these metadata below. The PDF file is a revised version of that provided in Annex 3 of: Martin, C.S., et al. (2014) Manual of marine and coastal datasets of biodiversity importance. May 2014 release. Cambridge (UK): UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 28 pp. (+ 4 annexes totalling 174 pp. and one e-supplement), ISBN: 978-92-807-3393-8,