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Tonga Arc, Volcano 18

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Notes on Vent Field Description: 
Kim (2011): confirmation with seafloor observation in 2011; Ju (2013): dives in 2011 ROV MAGNUM and 2012 ROV ROPOS, photographs of active vents, temperature 260 C, two black smokers discovered at eastern wall of caldera at depth approx. 1000 m; maximum sediment temperature of 13.8 deg C (Langley et al. 2005)
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
Ju (2013): notable fauna: snail (Alviniconcha), mussel (Bathymodiolus), crab (Austinograea), shrimp (Nautilocaris), scale worm (polynoid)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2011 ROV MAGNUM; 2003 plume and dredge only
Discovery References (text): 
(plume only) G. Massoth et al. G3 8, Q11008, doi:10.1029/2007GC001675, 2007, Multiple hydrothermal sources along the south Tonga arc and Valu Fa Ridge
(plume and dredge only) cruise SS02/2003 summary (
Kim, Jonguk (2011) Exploration activities of KORDI for deep sea minerals development in the Pacific region. Presentation online, accessed 31 Oct. 2014:
Other References (text): 
Arculus "Arc-backarc systems of northern Kermadec-Tonga" (
Langley et al. (2005) Preliminary Investigations Into the Geomicrobiology of Iron-Rich Seafloor Sediments Obtained From the Tonga Ridge. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2005, abstract #V51C-1507.
Ju, Se-Jong (2013) presentation to 37th Annual Conference of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, May 2013, accessed 31 Oct. 2014: