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Name Alias(es): 
Panarea volcanic complex
Basiluzzo area
Vent Sites: 
Smoking Land
Black Point
Hot Lake
La Calcara
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
calc-alkaline basalt, high-K andesite, rhyolite
Deposit Type: 
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
vents to the E-NE of Panarea Island towards Basiluzzo islet; Basiluzzo area is reported in Gamberi et al. 1997; 1m high Fe-oxide rich chimneys on submerged slopes of volcano; Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program profile 211041, accessed 1 June 2015: "Vigorous hydrothermal activity has continued at fumarolic fields at several locations on the submerged platform, and submarine hydrothermal explosions have occurred in historical time."; 53°C at shallow vents at Panarea Island (Italiano and Nuccio 1991); only a subset of vent sites names are listed: Black Point, Hot Lake, and La Calcara and are provided in Price et al. 2015, Smoking Land, 70-80m depth is provided in Esposito et al. 2018; position in given to Smoking Land vent site;
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
see Acunto et al. (1995)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1800's shallow vents; 1995 deeper vents ROV Comex
Discovery References (text): 
References from the 1800's in: Italiano, F. and Nuccio, P.M., 1991. Geochemical investigations of submarine volcanic exhalations to the east of Panarea, Aeolian Islands, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 46, pp. 125–141, doi:10.1016/0377-0273(91)90079-F
Gamberi F., Marani M., Savelli S. (1997) Tectonic, volcanic and hydrothermal features of a submarine portions of the Aeolian Arc, Marine Geology, 140, 167-181;
Marani et al., 1997, Shallow-water polymetallic sulfide deposits in the Aeolian island arc, Geology 25 (1997), pp. 815–818;
Other References (text): 
Acunto, S., Maltagliati, F., Cinelli, F., 1995. Osservazioni sui popolamenti bentonici di un’area interessata da attivita idrotermale nei pressi dell’Isola di Panarea (Isole Eolie). Biol. Mar. Mediterr. 3, 434–436;
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367;
Dekov, V. M. and C. Savelli (2004) Hydrothermal activity in the SE Tyrrhenian Sea: an overview of 30 years of research. Marine Geology 204: 161-185, doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00355-4;
Gugliandolo, C. et al. (2006) The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy): biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids-sea bottom interface. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 49, N. 2/3, 783-792;
Petersen et al. (2008) Drilling submarine hydrothermal systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. InterRidge News 17: 21-23;
Monecke et al. (2009) Shallow submarine hydrothermal systems in the Aeolian Volcanic Arc, Italy. Eos 90: 110-111;
Merkel et al. (2009) White smoker at 20 m water depth at Panarea´s submarine volcano, Aeolian island, Italy. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2009;
Amend et al. (2009) Archaea, Bacteria, and Sulfur-Cycling in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Ecosystem. AGU Fall Meeting ID# B21D-05;
Price RE, LaRowe D, Italiano F, Ivan S, Pichler T, Amend J. (2015) Subsurface hydrothermal processes and the bioenergetics of chemolithoautotrophy at the shallow-sea vents off Panarea Island (Italy). Chem Geol.; 407: 21–45.;
Esposito V, Andaloro F, Canese S, Bortoluzzi G, Bo M, Di Bella M, et al. (2018) Exceptional discovery of a shallow-water hydrothermal site in the SW area of Basiluzzo islet (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian Sea): An environment to preserve. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0190710.;