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North Cleft, high temperature

Name Alias(es): 
northern Cleft segment
northern Rift A
MGDS_FeatureID lowest in hierarchy: 
Vent Sites: 
Pipe Organ
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
small vent fields with active sulfide deposits and low-temperature Fe oxide and silica chimneys; [first documented eruption on MOR] basaltic fissure eruption between 1983 and 1987, 1986 and 1987 megaplume;; separated from low-temperature vents to south by a gap in venting from 44 54.5'N to 44 56.5'N; low-temperature vents associated with this field extend to at least 45 03'N; Baker and Hammond (1992): "The absence of temperature elevations in Crane et al.'s [1985] 1982 and 1983 data from the northern end of Cleft suggests that the 1986 megaplume may have substantially rejuvenated this vent field"; note Ed Baker separates Pipe Organ from the other sites into its own vent field listing
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1987 camera/CTD tows discovered low-temperature vents; 1988 submersible Alvin sampled low-temperature vents; 1990 submersible Alvin discovered black smoker
Discovery References (text): 
Embley et al., Geology, 19, 771-775, 1991, Geology of the northern Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Recent lava flows, sea-floor spreading, and the formation of megaplumes.
Other References (text): 
(plume only) Baker and Hammond (1992) Hydrothermal Venting and the Apparent Magmatic Budget of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 97(B3): 3443-3456
Butterfield and Massoth, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 4951-4968, 1994, Geochemistry of north Cleft segment vent fluids: Temporal changes in chlorinity and their possible relation to recent volcanism
Koski, R.A. et al. (1994) Compositions, growth mechanisms, and temporal relations of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica chimneys at the northern Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. JGR 99(B3): 4813-4832.