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Niua South

Name Alias(es): 
Volcano "P"
Tonga Arc, Volcano P
MGDS_FeatureID lowest in hierarchy: 
Vent Sites: 
Niua 2
Niua 3 (= Adelaide Spires)
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
southern end of volcano P (= Niua); SRK Consulting report for Nautilus Minerals: "Niua 2 is at a water depth of 900mBSL with a strike length of 230m and width of 170m. Niua 3 is at a water depth of 1,180mBSL with a strike length of 270m and width of 250m."; Merle et al. (2008): tow NELSC, t08c14; 2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, "focused the dive on a large crater on the southern shoulder of the volcano at a depth of 1155 meters", "crater at Niua South was about 200 meters across and about 30 meters deep", "Most of the mound is now inactive, and formed of numerous collapsed dead chimneys, but at the top we found a spectacular black-smoker vent, consisting of a cluster of about 20 active chimneys that had all grown together, which we named Adelaide Spires", "peak temperature measured was 315 C, consistent with the boiling temperature at that depth"; 2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, "Niua North, with its profuse venting of magmatic gases and sulfur volcanism, contrasts dramatically with the (presumably) more deeply rooted Niua South magma source with its extensive black smoker vent fields."; video of beehive chimneys, dive Q333, accessed 24 April 2015,; Baker et al. 2019: site 33 in Table 2;
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, "Animals living at the vent included two species of shrimp, two species of snails, limpets, scaleworms, crabs, squat lobsters, eelpouts, and barnacles"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2008 commercial ROV
Discovery References (text): 
SRK Consulting report for Nautilus Minerals (;
Other References (text): 
Merle, S., et al. (2008) Northeast Lau Basin, R/V Thompson Expedition TN227, November 13-28, 2008, Apia to Apia, Western Samoa. Cruise report. Accessed 8 May 2015,;
2012 cruise report, accessed 6 May 2015:;
Baker ET, Walker SL, Massoth GJ and Resing JA (2019) The NE Lau Basin: Widespread and Abundant Hydrothermal Venting in the Back-Arc Region Behind a Superfast Subduction Zone. Front. Mar. Sci. 6:382. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00382;