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Nifonea Ridge

Maximum Temperature: 
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Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
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Notes on Vent Field Description: 
located in Vate Basin, Coriolis (Southern Backarc) Troughs, New Hebrides backarc spreading center; spreading rate not in Bird (2003), therefore used estimate for South New Hebrides Back-Arc Troughs from Pelletier et al. (1998); active 2001, but note: hydrothermal plume not detected in 2004; McConachy et al. (2005): "Video showed clear and milky fluids emitted through fissures and gaps in fresh glassy, vesicular, lightly sediment covered to uncovered pillow, sheet-flow, and tube-flow basalts with associated iron oxyhydroxides and vent fauna"; Facebook posting for R/V Sonne Cruise SO-229, 22 July 2013: "Absolutely stunning day at Nifonea! Black smokers with temperatures of up to 360 C! Boiling!"
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
McConachy et al. (2005): "Extensive hydrothermal fauna and yellow-brown crusts and mounds cover an area of 1 km2," "Vent fauna include galatheid crabs, mussels, tubeworms, spaghetti worms, and scale worms"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2001 towed video; 2013 ROV Kiel 6000 black smokers
Discovery References (text): 
McConachy, T.F., et al., 2001, Final cruise report FR08-2001, in Yeats, C.J., ed., VAVE-2001, Vanuatu Australia Vents Expedition aboard the RV Franklin 5–25 September 2001: Sydney, Australia, CSIRO Exploration and Mining Report, v. 881Fp. 318.
McConacchy et al., Geology, 33, 61-64, 2005, New hydrothermal activity and alkalic volcanism in the backarc Coriolis Troughs, Vanuatu.
Other References (text): 
R. Arculus cruise report COTROVE-2004, SS06/2004, and,RichardSOTA_abstract.doc.
SRK Consulting (2011) Nautilus Minerals Incorporated NI43-101 Technical Report 2010 PNG, Tonga, Fiji, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Vanuatu and the ISA. Document Reference: NAT007 Nautilus 43-101 Technical Report 2011 Rev3.docx.
Pelletier, B. et al. (1998) Current tectonics of the Tonga–New Hebrides region. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 164: 263-276.
R/V Sonne Cruise SO-229,, accessed 1 June 2015.