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Kawio Barat

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Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
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Notes on Vent Field Description: 
INDEX-SATAL 2010 cruise ROV "Little Hercules" dives Ocean Explorer press release with videos at:; Makarim et al. (2010): "sources of the detected vent plumes in the northern and southwest part of the summit in 1800-1900 m depth. In southwest part of this summit chimney, drips of molten sulfur were observed in the proximity of microbial staining."; Butterfield et al. (2010): "The vents seen on the south slope appear identical to vents detected by camera tow and reported by McConachy et al. (2004)."
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
stalked barnacles, shrimp, limpets, polynoid scale worms, alvinellid polychaetes, brachyuran and galatheid crabs, vesicoymid-like clams; Butterfield et al. (2010): "The visually dominant vent fauna is a stalked barnacle that covers much of the chimney surfaces."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2003 towed video, CTD/transmissometer, and dredge
Discovery References (text): 
McConachy, T. F., H. Permana, R. A. Binns, I. Zulkarnain, J. M. Parr, C. J. Yeats, N. D. Hananto, B. Priadi, S. Burhanuddin, and E. P. Utomo (2004) Recent Investigations of Submarine Hydrothermal Activity in Indonesia. PACRIM 2004, Adelaide, SA, 19-22 September 2004, 161- 172.
Other References (text): 
McConachy et al., AOGS abstract, The Management of Minerals and Biological Resources Associated With Submarine Hydrothermal Systems in Indonesia (
Shank, T.M., et al. (2010) Hydrothermal Vents and Organic Falls in the Heart of the Coral Triangle: Chemosynthetic Communities Discovered via Telepresence in the Sangihe-Talaud Region, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. AGU Fall Meeting Abstract OS11D-04.
Makarim, S., et al. (2010) Plume indications from hydrothermal activity on Kawio Barat Submarine Volcano, Sangihe Talaud Sea, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. AGU Fall Meeting Abstract OS13C-1232.
Butterfield, D., et al. (2010) Video Observations by Telepresence Reveal Two Types of Hydrothermal Venting on Kawio Barat Seamount. AGU Fall Meeting Abstract OS13C-1236.