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Izena Cauldron

Name Alias(es): 
Izena Hole
Vent Sites: 
Jade (includes TBS Chimney)
Hakurei (includes Dragon Chimney)
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
basalt, high-K andesite, dacite, rhyolithe
Deposit Type: 
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
active sulfide deposits and low-temperature Fe oxide, barite, and silica chimneys in the caldera (100 m x 300 m approx. explored dimensions), black (320 deg C) and clear (220 deg C) smokers with high gas content; liquid CO2; Neptune Minerals Plc, 21 Feb. 2007, applications by Neptune Minerals Japan Kabushiki Kaisha: "Included in Neptune's application areas is the JADE hydrothermal field, where continuing research since its discovery in 1988 has highlighted extensive occurrences of SMS mineralisation over an area of 1800m by 600m."; Ishibashi et al. (2015): "Izena Hole is a rectangular shaped depression about 6 x 3 km", "Hakurei field is located at the bottom of the depression of the Izena Hole... depths of 1600-1610 m", highest temperature 326 C Dragon Chimney at 1600 m, "Jade field is located at an inside slope of the north-eastern wall of the Izena Hole... depth of 1550-1300 m", highest temperature 320 C TBS Chimney at 1350 m
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
galatheid crabs, shrimps, vestimentiferan tubeworms, Bathymodiolus, Calyptogena
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1988 submersible Shinkai 2000
Discovery References (text): 
Halbach et al. (1989) Probable modern analogue of Kuroko-type massive sulphide deposits in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin. Nature 338: 496-499.
Other References (text): 
Marumo, K. and Hattori, K.H. (1999) Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63: 2785-2804
Sakai et al. (1990) Venting of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Fluid and Hydrate Formation in Mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin. Science 248: 1093-1096
[Kimura et al. (1989) Study of topography, hydrothermal deposits and animal colonies in the Middle Okinawa Trough hydrothermal areas using the submersible "SHINKAI 2000" system. JAMSTEC Deep-Sea Res. 5: 223-244
Ohta (1990) Deep-sea submersible survey of the hydrothermal vent community on the northeastern slope of the lheya Ridge, the Okinawa Trough. JAMSTEC Deep-sea Res., 6: 145-156
Tanaka et al. (1990) Occurrence and distribution of the hydrothermal deposits in the Izena Hole, central Okinawa Trough. JAMSTEC Deep-Sea Res. 6: 11-26
Ishibashi, J., et al. (2015) Hydrothermal Activity in the Okinawa Trough Back-Arc Basin: Geological Background and Hydrothermal Mineralization. pp. 337-359 in Ishibashi, J. et al. (eds) Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2_27.