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FRSC, Fonualei South

Name Alias(es): 
Fonualei South
South Fonualei
MGDS_FeatureID lowest in hierarchy: 
Vent Sites: 
Laloa Kakai (= Loloa Kakai)
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
southernmost FRSC; 2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, "dive (Q-323) on September 13 was made on the large central volcano at the southernmost end of the Fonualei Rift ... deeper site on the NE flank ... tall spires identified on a previous survey map were found to be a group of very tall (up to 30 m), active, high temperature chimneys (254 C measured)."; 2012 cruise report: Loloa Kakai "vent field" at 1550-m depth is on flank of central cone; "...discovered two sites. The first was a low temperature site characterized by diffusely venting old chimneys near the summit of the central volcano. Also observed in the summit area was microbial mat with 39 C water... mussel shell debris on a steep slope below the summit. 1.2 km NE of the summit area site a group of very tall (up to 30 m) active high temperature chimneys, dubbed Laloa Kakai vent field"; Baker et al. 2019: sites 28 to 30 with spreading rate 11 mm/year in Table 1;
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2012 ROV Quest 4000
Discovery References (text): 
2012 cruise report, accessed 6 May 2015:;
Other References (text): 
Baker ET, Walker SL, Massoth GJ and Resing JA (2019) The NE Lau Basin: Widespread and Abundant Hydrothermal Venting in the Back-Arc Region Behind a Superfast Subduction Zone. Front. Mar. Sci. 6:382. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00382;