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Vent Sites: 
Black and White
Marsh Towers
Twin Peaks
Windsor Castle
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
first announcement of black smokers in InterRidge e-news #01/2010 (January 14th, 2010): "The first cruise one year ago... video sled surveys of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). That cruise obtained the first seafloor observations of vent fields on the ESR; indeed the furthest south black smokers have been seen so far by ~20 degrees of latitude."; see Marsh et al. (2015) for vent field description and high-definition image mosaics and video of the E9 ‘Black & White’ chimney structure
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
see Marsh et al. (2012) and Marsh et al. (2015); also see cruise blog 2010 (
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2009 towed video; 1999 plume only; 2010 ROV Isis
Discovery References (text): 
(plume only) Livermore et al. (1999) JR39b: Deep-towed sonar and seismic survey on the East Scotia Ridge. InterRidge News 8(1): 34-37
(plume only) German et al, Earth and Planetary Sci. Lett., 184, 241-250, 2000, Hydrothermal plumes above the East Scotia Ridge: an isolated high-latitude back-arc spreading centre
Other References (text): 
Marsh L, Copley JT, Huvenne VAI, Linse K, Reid WDK, et al. (2012) Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Ocean. PLoS ONE 7(10): e48348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048348.
Marsh, L., Copley, J. T., Tyler, P. A., Thatje, S. (2015), In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments. Journal of Animal Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12337.