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Enarete Seamount

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Notes on Vent Field Description: 
Eckhardt et al. (1997): "Our data support the idea that the Mn deposits formed as a result of submarine hydrothermal activity associated with subduction-related processes"; Walker et al. (2011): "At Enarete volcano, we found venting fluids with temperatures up to 5 C above ambient as well as small, fragile iron-oxide chimneys. The most intense ORP anomaly (-140 mv) occurred at a depth of about 495 m on the southeast side of the volcano, with smaller anomalies (-10 to -20 mv) more common as the ROV moved upslope to the summit."; Carey et al. (2012): "In some areas at the summit, fluids with temperatures up to 5 C above the ambient seawater were actively discharging. Bacteria were common in these areas, and small (a few tens of centimeters in height), fragile chimneys composed of iron oxides dotted the seafloor"
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
Nautilus Live video, accessed 24 April 2015,
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
2011 ROV Hercules; 1976 Fe crusts only; 1997 manganese crust only; 2007 plume only
Discovery References (text): 
(manganese crust only) ECKHARDT et al. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro Seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine georesources & geotechnology 15: 175-208.
(plume only) Lupton, J. et al. (2008) Submarine Hydrothermal Activity on the Aeolian Arc: New Evidence from Helium Isotopes. Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V11A-2001.
Carey, S.N., et al. (2012) Submarine Volcanoes of the Aeolian Arc, Tyrrhenian Sea. Oceanography, 25(1), Suppl. 32-33.
Other References (text): 
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367
Dekov, V. M. and C. Savelli (2004) Hydrothermal activity in the SE Tyrrhenian Sea: an overview of 30 years of research. Marine Geology 204: 161-185, doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00355-4.
Walker, S. et al. (2011) Near-bottom water column anomalies associated with active hydrothermal venting at Aeolian arc volcanoes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. AGU Fall Meeting, abstract OS51D-1906.