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Axial Seamount, ASHES

Name Alias(es): 
Axial Volcano, ASHES
MGDS_FeatureID lowest in hierarchy: 
Vent Sites: 
Fuzzy Tubeworm Bush
Hell Vent
Inferno Vent
Phoenix (= Hillock)
Virgins daughter
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
position is given for "Hell" large active sulfide chimney; Hammond et al. (1990): "The ASHES vent field encompasses an approximately 200 - 1200 m area of active venting which is located adjacent to the southwest caldera wall."; small vent fields with active sulfide deposits and low-temperature Fe-oxide and silica chimneys in the caldera of an axial seamount; high-temperature venting (330 C) and diffuse low-temperature venting; "ASHES Virtual Site" webpage, accessed 23 April 2015,; U.S. Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) Medium Power J-Box MJ03B with HD camera is situated near this vent field, webpage accessed 23 April 2015,; eruption 24 April 2015,; Axial volcano is in Cobb-Eikelberg hot spot chain;
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
see Tunnicliffe et al. (1985)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1984 submersible Alvin
Discovery References (text): 
[Malahoff, A., et al., (1984) High temperature hydrothermal fields - Juan de Fuca Ridge Axial Volcano, Eos Trans. AGU, 65, 1112.]
[ASHES (Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emissions Studies) Expedition (1986) Pisces submersible exploration of a high-temperature vent field in the caldera of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Eos Trans. AGU, 67, 1027.]
Other References (text): 
Tunnicliffe, V., et al. (1985) The hydrothermal vent community on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Biol. Soc. Wash. Bull., 6: 453-464
Hammond et al., J. Geophys. Res. 95, 12875-12893, 1990, Relationships Between Lava Types, Seafloor Morphology, and the Occurrence of Hydrothermal Venting in the ASHES Vent Field of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12875
Embley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95, B8, 12785-12812, 1990, High-Resolution Studies of the Summit of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12785
Rona & Trivett, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 109, 57-71, 1992, Discrete and diffuse heat transfer at ASHES vent field, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge
Herzig et al. (1997) Hydrothermal activity and rift-induced tracers at Axial (Juan de Fuca ridge): Results of cruise SO-109 of R/V Sonne-ROPOS. InterRidge News 6(1): 35-38.
Butterfield, D.A. et al, 2011. Fluid chemistry through an eruption cycle at Axial Seamount 1998-2011. Abstract V14C-07 presented at the American Geophysical Union 2011 fall meeting, December 5–9, 2011, San Francisco, CA.
Kelley, D. et al. (2014) Establishing a new era of submarine volcanic observatories: Cabling Axial Seamount and the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Marine Geology 352, 426-450, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.03.010.