Notes on Vent Field Description:
Sarano et al. (1989): "Submarine hot springs also discharge around the island at 10 to 30 m depth, particularly to the east and northwest"; Stoffers et al. (1999): "Near-shore hot springs at Whale Island and White Island occur in relatively shallow water (<30 m depth)"; Dive and Discover webpage, http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/expedition5/interviews/johnson.html, accessed 8 June 2015: "dives ranged in depth from 180 feet to about two feet", "water coming out of the vents was extremely hot"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1989 or earlier, likely SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
Other References (text):
Sarano, F. et al. (1989) Preliminary observations of submarine geothermal activity in the vicinity of White Island Volcano, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 19:4, 449-459, DOI:10.1080/03036758.1989.10421847.
Stoffers et al. (1999) Elemental mercury at submarine hydrothermal vents in the Bay of Plenty, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. Geology 27: 931-934.