Notes on Vent Field Description:
eruption observed with ROV Jason II in 2009; Resing et al. (2011): "At the summit, hydrothermal fluids vent diffusely from rocks located within 4 to 200 m of the ongoing eruption ... Despite the harsh chemical environment and regular renewal of substrate, active microbial populations at levels above ambient seawater were found in all low-temperature fluids, including those with pH less than or equal to 3."; Merle et al. (2008): tows t08c16 and t08c17; 2009 and 2010 cruise websites, accessed 24 April 2015, http://laueruptions.blogspot.com; 2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/12fire/logs/summary/summary.html: "September 19 (Q-327) was the first at West Mata volcano since the 2009 response cruise that discovered an active eruption ... No sign of eruptive activity was observed during the dive"; temperature categorized as Low based on observations during 2012 cruise; WHOI YouTube video, accessed 24 April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5WAWe9XgA4&list=PL1CGd4Scv4GJsaaFRzItk-btFI757bH8f&index=5
Notes Relevant to Biology:
2009 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, http://laueruptions.blogspot.com/2009/05/biological-preview.html: "the diffuse venting fluids (5 to 25 C), issuing through cracks and crevices around the eruptive vents, play host to only one type of vent fauna - shrimp"; Resing et al. (2011): "Two co-occurring vent-endemic alvinocarid shrimp species (Opaepele loihi and an unidentified species)"; 2012 cruise blog, accessed 24 April 2015, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/12fire/logs/summary/summary.html: "ecosystem at West Mata was dramatically changed from the relatively sparse single shrimp species population observed in 2009 to multiple species of shrimp swarming in high- density clusters over the summit region. In addition, other motile species including scale worms and crabs had colonized the volcano"; video of shrimp, dive Q332, accessed 24 April 2015, http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/12fire/media/12firestream_playlist.html#
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2009 ROV Jason II; 2008 eruption plume detected
Discovery References (text):
Embley et al. (2009) Extensive and Diverse Submarine Volcanism and Hydrothermal Activity in the NE Lau Basin. AGU Fall Meeting abstract #V51D-1719.
Resing, J., et al. (2011) Active submarine eruption of boninite in the northeastern Lau Basin. Nature Geoscience, 4, 799-806, doi:10.1038/ngeo1275
Other References (text):
Merle, S., et al. (2008) Northeast Lau Basin, R/V Thompson Expedition TN227, November 13-28, 2008, Apia to Apia, Western Samoa. Cruise report. Accessed 8 May 2015, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/eoi/laubasin/documents/tn227-nelau-report-final.pdf.
2012 cruise report, accessed 6 May 2015: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/12fire/logs/summary/srof12-cruisereport-final.pdf.