Notes on Vent Field Description:
on central Manus Spreading Center; Hydrothermal Field 4, SW of Vienna Woods; Tufar et al. 1990: "milky smoke"; note: SRK Consulting report for Nautilus Minerals for Solwara 10 (http://www.nautilusminerals.com/i/pdf/2008NautilusExplorationNI43-101Report.pdf): "No active venting has been observed"; Solwara 10 is approx. 11 km NE of Tufar 4; Solwara 14 occurs approximately 2km SSW of Solwara 10; Solwara 15 occurs approximately 5 km SSW of Solwara 10; SRK Consulting report says: "In May and June 2008 Teck carried out an extensive multibeam and plume hunting survey of the Bismarck Sea tenements. ... Solwara 10 and Solwara 11 were discovered by following up one of the plume anomalies discovered during this cruise."; Solwara 14 and 15 discovered 2009 ROV Fugro FV300, SRK report (2011): "Solwara 14a is a linear zone of inactive chimney clusters approximately 150 m by up to 20 m wide. Solwara 14b is slightly smaller and less continuous than Solwara 14a, and has active black smoker chimneys. Solwara 15 occurs on the Manus Spreading Centre, to the SW of Solwara 14 at around 2215 m water depth. The system comprises a cluster of small, generally NE trending/elongated chimney occurrences scattered along about 1km of the main spreading ridge axis. Solwara 15a comprises one small area of chimneys on NE trend (~60 m long and 10 m wide). Two of the clusters are actively venting black smoke with abundant biology. Another area around 80 m long was mapped further east of this (Solwara 15b). Billowing black smokers occur in this area with abundant life."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
anemones, tubeworms, crabs
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
Tufar et al. (1990) Modern Hydrothermal Activity, Formation of Complex Massive Sulfide Deposits and Associated Vent Communities in the Manus Back-Arc Basin (Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea). Mitt, österr. geol. Ges. 82: 183-210.
Other References (text):
SRK Consulting (2011) Nautilus Minerals Incorporated NI43-101 Technical Report 2010 PNG, Tonga, Fiji, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Vanuatu and the ISA. Document Reference: NAT007 Nautilus 43-101 Technical Report 2011 Rev3.docx.