Notes on Vent Field Description:
on central Manus Spreading Center; 285 - 300°C, clear, milky and black smokers; zinc-rich chimneys; Solwara 2 Project of Nautilus Minerals; with deposits named Tufar 2 (= Solwara 2), Tufar 3 (= Solwara 3); note: Tufar 3 is located a few km to NE of Vienna Woods at 3 6.67'S 150 21.75'E
Notes Relevant to Biology:
gastropods, Bythograeid crabs, galatheids, shrimps, cirripeds, tubeworms
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1990 TV-grab (also same year, sampled by submersible Mir); 1985 (or 1986) camera tow vent fauna and inactive chimneys
Discovery References (text):
[Note: Both et al. (1986) often cited as first discovery of active hydrothermalism in western Pacific back-arc basins] Both et al. (1986) Hydrothermal chimneys and associated fauna in the Manus back-arc basin, papua New Guinea. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 67: 489-490
Tufar et al. (1990) Modern Hydrothermal Activity, Formation of Complex Massive Sulfide Deposits and Associated Vent Communities in the Manus Back-Arc Basin (Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea). Mitt, österr. geol. Ges. 82: 183-210.
Other References (text):
[Tufar, Jahresbericht fuer den Foerderbereich Meergeowissenchaften, 51-55, 1990]
[(abstract says active and inactive explored by submersible Mir) Lisitsyn et al., A HYDROTHERMAL FIELD IN THE RIFT ZONE OF THE MANUS BASIN, BISMARCK SEA, International Geology Review, 35, 105-126, 1993].