Notes on Vent Field Description:
hydrothermal venting within coral reef; Waramung is one of the on-shore hot springs; Pichler et al. (1999): "Submarine hydrothermal venting occurs at Tutum Bay approximately 150 m offshore from Ambitle Island in 5-10 m water depth (Fig. 1). Two types of venting are observed. (1) Focused discharge of a clear, hydrothermal fluid occurs at discrete ports, 5-15 cm in diameter. Fluid temperatures at vent orifices are between 89 and 98 C and discharge rates are as high as 400 L/min. (2) Dispersed or diffuse discharge consists of hydrothermal fluids and streams of gas bubbles (94–98% CO2) emerging directly through the sandy to pebbly unconsolidated sediment and through fractures in volcanic rocks."; "hydrothermal fluids are of meteoric origin"; "The site is located along a fault trace that intersects several of the on-land geothermal areas."; volcanic island in rifted fore-arc
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1996 or earlier, likely by SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
[Licence et al. (1987) Epithermal gold mineralization, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Pacific Rim Congress '87. Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Gold Coast, Queensland, pp. 273-278.]
Pichler and Dix (1996) Hydrothermal venting within a coral reef ecosystem, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Geology 24: 435-438.
Other References (text):
Pichler et al. (1999) The chemical composition of shallow-water hydrothermal fluids in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea and their effect on ambient seawater. Marine Chemistry 64: 229-252
Price and Pichler (2005) Distribution, speciation and bioavailability of arsenic in a shallow-water submarine hydrothermal system, Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG. Chemical Geology 224:122-135.