Notes on Vent Field Description:
Stoffers et al.: "first observations of high-temperature hydrothermal venting and large sulfide-sulfate chimneys on shallow submarine volcanoes of the Tonga arc.", "Widespread diffuse hydrothermal venting"; cruise SS02/2003 summary (http://www.marine.csiro.au/nationalfacility/voyagedocs/2003/0203s.htm): "we discovered strong plumes in the caldera of Volcano 1 during tow-yo T03B-30. One source is likely to be at the base of the caldera wall at a depth >400m. A second stronger source is at the base of a volcanic construct on the western ridge of the caldera."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Stoffers et al.: "water depths of 160–210 m ...densely populated field of mussels"; at 4th CBE Symposium (2009) Kim Juniper showed photo at 198 m of dense mussels with sea stars at periphery and mentioned co-location of bacterial mats, coralline algae, and vent-endemic mussels
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2005 with submersibles PISCES IV and PISCES V and ROV RCV-150; 2003 plume and dredge only
Discovery References (text):
Stoffers, P. et al. (2006) Submarine volcanoes and high-temperature hydrothermal venting on the Tonga arc, southwest Pacific. Geology 34: 453-456
(plume only) G. Massoth et al. G3 8, Q11008, doi:10.1029/2007GC001675, 2007, Multiple hydrothermal sources along the south Tonga arc and Valu Fa Ridge
(plume and dredge only) cruise SS02/2003 summary (http://www.marine.csiro.au/nationalfacility/voyagedocs/2003/0203s.htm).
Other References (text):
Schwarz-Schampera, U., et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO, Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone (http://epic.awi.de/21725/1/Sch2010f.pdf)
Kim Juniper abstract 4th CBE Symposium (2009)
Kim, H.-J., et al. (2013) Caldera structure of submarine Volcano #1 on the Tonga Arc at 21 09'S, southwestern Pacific: Analysis of multichannel seismic profiling. Earth Planets Space, 65, 893–900, doi:10.5047/eps.2013.01.002.