basalt, high-K andesite, dacite, rhyolithe, sediment-hosted
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Klickhammer et al. (1996): "Every major volcanic structure in both the Central and Eastern Basins was surveyed, and evidence of hydrothermal activity was found in both basins. The strongest signals were observed in the Central Basin (figure 1) along Hook Ridge (SL24), the Middle Ridge of the Three Sisters (SL26), and the Little Volcano (SL27). ... Hydrothermal activity occurs along a linear but discontinuous neovolcanic ridge that runs between Deception Island and Bridgeman Island in the Central Basin and continues northeast of Bridgeman Island in the Eastern Basin."; water column particle, helium and temperature anomalies; Bransfield Strait "rifted continental margin"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
1999 photographs lacked typical MOR fauna
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1995 plume only; 1999 still had no visual confirmation
Discovery References (text):
(plume only) C.S. Chin, et al., Hydrothermal activity in a nascent backarc basin: the Bransfield Strait. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 77 (1996), p. F413
Klinkhammer et al. (1996) Hydrothermal and hydrographic surveys of the Bransfield Strait: Results from cruise NBP95-07. ANTARCTIC JOURNAL — REVIEW 1996: 92-94
G.P. Klinkhammer, et al., Discovery of hydrothermal vent-sites in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 80 (1999), p. F1174
Klinkhammer, GP et al. (2001) Discovery of new hydrothermal vent sites in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. EPSL 193(3): 395-407.
Other References (text):
Petersen et al. (2004) Hydrothermal precipitates associated with bimodal volcanism in the Central Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Mineralium Deposita 39: 358-379, DOI 10.1007/s00126-004-0414-3.