Notes on Vent Field Description:
Coastal Japan (Okinawa); shallow submarine hydrothermal system associated with a subtropical coral reef (http://ir.lib.u-ryukyu.ac.jp/bitstream/123456789/11327/4/15310013-4.pdf); Hirayama et al. (2007): "The vent fluid (maximum temperature, >52°C) contained 175 μM H2S and gas bubbles mainly composed of CH4 (69%) and N2 (29%)."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Hirayama et al. (2007): "Our results indicate that there are unique microbial communities that are sustained by active chemosynthetic primary production rather than by photosynthetic production in a shallow hydrothermal system where sunlight is abundant."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1987 or earlier, likely by SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
[Oomori T (1987) Chemical compositions of submarine hot spring water and associated bottom sediments near Taketomi-jima at Southern Part of the Ryukyu Island Arc, North-west Pacific. Journal of Earth Science Nagoya University 35:325–340].
Other References (text):
Nakamura et al. (2006) Acroporid corals growing over a methane-bubbling hydrothermal vent, Southern Ryukyu Archipelago. Coral Reefs 25:382, DOI:10.1007/s00338-006-0107-8
Hirayama et al. (2007) Culture-Dependent and -Independent Characterization of Microbial Communities Associated with a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal System Occurring within a Coral Reef off Taketomi Island, Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73(23): 7642–7656.