LTH, deposits not described
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Olafsson et al. (1991) rapid response cruise after earthquake swarm in Oct. 1990 included towed camera, "we were able to confirm...a previously suspected (but undocumented) hot spring"; Palmer et al. (1995): "The high dissolved CH4 and H2 concentrations reported for 1990 were measured immediately after an episode of earthquake activity which may have resulted in the injection of magmatic gases into the local hydrothermal system.", "the Steinahóll hydrothermal site may represent a transition between submarine and subaerial geothermal systems in its gas chemistry."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Tarasov et al. (2005): "Van Dover (1995) noted that bacterial mat is present but no macroinvertebrates. Ólaffson et al. (1991) mentioned black echiurans seen on the video. According to Dando (pers. comm.), these echiurans are Bonellia cf. viridis and closely resemble those found around vents in deeper water off Milos at 60 m in Milos Bay and 40 m off Palaeochori Bay (Dando et al., 1995)."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1990 plume, echosounding, and towed video; 1993 plume only (included echosounding for more precise location)
Discovery References (text):
Olafsson et al., A sudden cruise off Iceland, RIDGE Events Newsletter, 2(2), 35-38, 1991.
(plume only) German, C.R. et al., Hydrothermal activity on the Reykjanes Ridge: the Steinaholl vent field at 63°06′N. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 121 (1994), pp. 647–654.
Other References (text):
Palmer et al. (1995) Dissolved methane and hydrogen in the Steinahóll hydrothermal plume, 63°N, Reykjanes Ridge. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 87: 111-120, DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.1995.087.01.10
German, CR and Parson, LM (1998) Distributions of hydrothermal activity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: interplay of magmatic and tectonic controls. EPSL 160(3-4): 327-341
Tarasov et al. (2005) Deep-sea and shallow-water hydrothermal vent communities: Two different phenomena? Chemical Geology 224: 5-39.