Notes on Vent Field Description:
E of back-arc spreading center and W of southern Mariana Arc; Fryer et al (2004): "(Seamount X) is apparently deformed along a fault zone that connects the center of back-arc extension to the major north–south fault at 144°10'E."; Baker et al. (2005) figure shows "X" as arc volcano, in arc with TOTO and W. Rota; Baker et al. (2008): "ROV dives in 2006 found no high-temperature sites but did observe thick deposits of microbial mats and multiple diffuse venting sites (T = 12 C (D. Butterfield, unpublished data, 2007))"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Diffuse sites of thermal venting colonized by shrimps, crabs, and scaleworms were detected near the summit during a 2006 NOAA expedition, and thick deposits of sulfur flows originating from the hydrothermal vent were observed that were covered with squat lobsters; 2006 NOAA cruise report suggests diversity more like other seamounts on frontal arc rather than Forecast
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1994 or earlier submersible Shinkai 6500
Discovery References (text):
[MASUDA H., et al. 1994. Topography and geochemical aspects on the most recent volcanism around the spreading axis of the southern Mariana Trough at 13°N . Proceedings of JAMSTEC Symposium of Deep Sea Research 10, 175–85 (in Japanese)].
Other References (text):
[Hein et al., in Geology and Resource Potential of the Continental Margin of Western North America and Adjacent Ocean Basins, 753-771, 1987]
Embley, R et al (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40
Fryer et al. (2004) Volcanoes of the southwestern extension of the active Mariana island arc: New swath-mapping and geochemical studies. The Island Arc 7: 596-607
Baker, E.T. et al. (2005) Hydrothermal activity on near-arc sections of back-arc ridges: results from the Mariana Trough and Lau Basin. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6: Q09001, doi:10.1029/2005GC000948
"Submarine Ring of Fire" cruise report (2006): http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06fire/logs/summary/media/srof06_cruisereport_final.pdf
Baker et al. (2008) Hydrothermal activity and volcano distribution along the Mariana arc, JGR, 113, B08S09, doi:10.1029/2007JB005423.