LTH, Fe & Mn oxides, silica, siderite
Notes on Vent Field Description:
hydrothermal discharge in caldera of volcano with deposits of Fe & Mn oxides, amorphous silica, siderite, and metalliferous sediments; Palaea Kameni (shallow vents), Nea Kameni (shallow vents), Santorini Caldera; http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06greece/background/geology/geology.html; from Sigurdsson et al. (2006): "only low-temperature venting was observed within the Santorini caldera. Hydrothermal vents occur in both the North and South basins of the caldera. The vents form hundreds of one- to four-meter-diameter mounds of yellowish bacterial mats that are up to one meter high. Temperatures in the mounds are around 15º-17ºC, or about 5ºC above ambient temperature."; email from P. Dando 2010: "We have found new vent fields, in addition to those reported on the 2006 NOAA expedition, on the outside of Santorini"; Camilli et al. (2015): "between 250 and 235 m depth, and within 1 km of the cliff-top town of Oia, we discovered an interconnected series of meandering, iridescent white pools (Fig. 3). These 1 to 5 m diameter pools, named Kallisti Limnes (translation from Ancient Greek: Most Beautiful Lakes)";
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1960's, likely by SCUBA; 2006 deeper vents HOV Thetis and AUV SeaBED
Discovery References (text):
[(likely to be first paper for shallow vents at Santorini) Harder, H. (1960) Rezente submarine vulkanische Eisenausscheidungen yon Santorin, Griechenland. Fortschr. Mineral. 38: 187-189
Butuzova, G.Ju, 1969. Recent Volcanic and Sedimentary Processes in the Cauldron of the Santorini Volcano, Aegean Sea, and Its Effect on the Geochemistry of the Sediments. Nauka, Moscow, 112 pp. (in Russian).]
Other References (text):
Smith and Cronan (1983) THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF METALLIFEROUS SEDIMENTS AND WATERS ASSOCIATED WITH SHALLOW SUBMARINE HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY (SANTORINI, AEGEAN SEA). Chemical Geology 39: 241-262
Boestrom & Widenfalk, The origin of iron-rich muds at the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece. Chemical Geology, 42, 203-218, 1984
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367
Varnavas and Cronan (2005) Submarine hydrothermal activity off Santorini and Milos in the Central Hellenic Volcanic Arc: A synthesis. Chemical Geology 224: 40-54
Sigurdsson et al. (2006) Marine Investigations of Greece’s Santorini Volcanic Field. Eos 87: 337, 342.
Camilli, R. et al. (2015) The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools. Scientific Reports 5, 12152, doi:10.1038/srep12152.