Notes on Vent Field Description:
Kelley et al. (2001a): "Within Salty Dawg, vent fluid temperatures reach up to 305 C and vigorous venting is constrained to a few, multi-flanged edifices that reach 25 m in height and 25 m in length. Largest structure Grendl reaches 25 m across and 25 m high. The field hosts over 25 sulfide structures, oxidized sulfide is abundant, and diffuse flow is dominant. Fluid compositions and temperatures are consistent with Salty Dawg being in a waning stage of evolution."; Cirque (sulfides) and Dune (tubeworms) are diffuse vent sites on axial valley wall just to W of Salty Dawg; area of Canadian marine protected area. Kelley et al (2012): >150 m in length, with core of field hosting 35 m long band of massive continuous sulfides. Intense hydrothermal plume encountered in 2005 above field (source unclear: Kelley et al (2001b))
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1995 submersible Alvin, followed by ROV ROPOS
Discovery References (text):
Delaney, J.R., et al., 1997, The Endeavour Hydrothermal System I: Cellular circulation above an active cracking front yields large sulfide structures, "fresh" vent water, and hyperthermophilic archae, RIDGE Events, vol. 8, No. 2, 11-19.
Other References (text):
Kelley, D. et al. (2001a) Vent Field Distribution and Evolution Along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001, abstract #OS21B-0439.
Kelley, D. et al. (2001b). Geology and venting characteristics of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geology 29:959-962
Glickson, D.A. et al, (2006). The Sasquatch Hydrothermal Field: Linkages between seismic activity, hydrothermal flow, and geology. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(52): Fall Meeting Supplemental Abstract V23B-0614
Kelley, D. et al (2012). Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Oceanography, Special Issue on Ridge 2000 Program Research, Vol 25, No.1, Mar 2012, 44-61