MORB, low-K oceanic andesite
Notes on Vent Field Description:
first deep-sea vents discovered; axial volcanic high; van Andel and Ballard (1979) geological map is for 86 11'W to 86 07'W, i.e., does not include Rose Garden; map of active vent fields in Ballard et al. (1982) is for 86 17'W to 85 58'W; maximum temperature 22 C in Ballard et al. (1982); Clambake I and II (named after photos taken in 1976), Mussel Bed (1979), Oyster Bed (1977), Rose Garden (1979, not active in 2002), Garden of Eden (1977, still active 2005), Rosebud (2002); Shank et al. (2012): "The lack of biota and presence of vitreous, unsedimented lobate lava flows observed at the Rosebud diffuse vent field (86.2°W) suggests that there may have been an eruption at this site after 2005 when this site was last visited."; note: Garden of Eden is approx. 6 naut. miles east of Rose Garden (00 47.7'N, 86 07.7'W) and was considered a separate vent field in Hessler and Smithey (1984)
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Riftia tubeworms, Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Bythograeidae, enteropneusts
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1977 submersible Alvin; 1976 plume and photographs of clam shells did not confirm activity (note: Rose Garden is used here as the name of the vent field, but Rose Garden vent site itself not discovered until 1979)
Discovery References (text):
Corliss et al., Science, 203, 1073-1083, 1979, Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift
(Deep Tow photographs in 1976) Lonsdale, P. (1977) Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers. Deep-Sea Research 24: 857-863
(Rose Garden) Grassle et al. (1979) Galápagos ‘79: Initial Findings of a Deep-Sea Biological Quest. Oceanus 22: 1-10
(Rose Garden) Ballard et al., J. Geophys. Res., 87, B2, 1149-1161, 1982, doi:10.1029/JB087iB02p01149, THE GALAPAGOS RIFT AT 86°W 5. VARIATIONS IN VOLCANISM, STRUCTURE, AND HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY ALONG A 30-KILOMETER SEGMENT OF THE RIFT VALLEY.
Other References (text):
van Andel and Ballard (1979) The Galápagos Rift at 86°W: Volcanism, Structure, and Evolution of the Rift Valley. Journal of Geophysical Research 84: 5390-5406
Hessler and Smithey, Jr. (1984) The Distribution and Community Structure of Megafauna at the Galapágos Rift Hydrothermal Vents. In: Hydrothermal Processes at Seafloor Spreading Centers, edited by Peter A. Rona, et al. (Plenum Publishing Corporation)
Shank et al. (2003) Deep Submergence Synergy: Alvin and ABE Explore the Galápagos Rift at 86°W. Eos, Trans. AGU, 84(41), 425, 440, doi:10.1029/2003EO410001.
Shank, T., et al. (2012) Exploration of the deepwater Galapagos region. Oceanography, 25(1), Suppl. 50-51.