Notes on Vent Field Description:
off-axis (from Snail vent field), southern Mariana Trough; Archaean site is on the eastern flank of the spreading ridge about 2 km from the axis; Urashima/Pika sites are on a volcano 5 km off-axis to east; Baker et al. (2005): "Plumes between 12 55' and 12 58'N rose ~200 m, with the maximum NTU and Eh anomalies centered between 2700 and 2750 m."; Archaean and Pika are included in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument; WHOI YouTube video accessed 24 April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxWUw_FGnJo&list=PL1CGd4Scv4GJsaaFRzItk-btFI757bH8f&index=4
Notes Relevant to Biology:
see list of species in Kojima and Watanabe (2015)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2003 submersible Shinkai 6500; 2003 plume only
Discovery References (text):
Ishibashi, et al. (2004) Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center. AGU Fall Meeting abstract #V44A-05
(plume only) Baker, E.T. et al. (2005) Hydrothermal activity on near-arc sections of back-arc ridges: results from the Mariana Trough and Lau Basin. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6: Q09001, doi:10.1029/2005GC000948.
Other References (text):
Kakegawa et al. (2008) Geochemistry of sulfide chimneys and basement pillow lavas at the southern Mariana Trough (12.55 N - 12.58 N). Resource Geology 58: 249-266.
Kojima, S., and Watanabe, H. (2015) Vent fauna in the Mariana Trough. Chap. 25 in Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems, eds. Ishibashi, J., et al., doi:10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2_25.