Notes on Vent Field Description:
although gas plumes originally attributed to hydrothermal activity, subsequent cruise found cold seep/gas hydrate; carbonate crusts and nodules with black sulfidic muds; note there are several identified volcanoes in Global Volcanism Program for Paramushir Island
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
Suggested hydrothermal activity: Avdeiko et al. (1984) The submarine gas-hydrothermal activity on the north-west slope of Paramushir Island (Kurile Islands). Volcanol. and Seismol. 6, 66-81. [In Russian]
Subsequent article says cold seep: Seliverstov et al. (1994) Active seeps and carbonates from the Kamchatsky Gulf (East Kamchatka). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol. 41, pp. 50-54.