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Name Alias(es): 
Panarea volcanic complex
Vent Sites: 
Black Point
Hot Lake
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Minimum Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
calc-alkaline basalt, high-K andesite, rhyolite
Deposit Type: 
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
vents to the E-NE of Panarea Island towards Basiluzzo islet; 1m high Fe-oxide rich chimneys on submerged slopes of volcano; Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program profile 211041, accessed 1 June 2015: "Vigorous hydrothermal activity has continued at fumarolic fields at several locations on the submerged platform, and submarine hydrothermal explosions have occurred in historical time."; 53°C at shallow vents at Panarea Island (Italiano and Nuccio 1991)
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
see Acunto et al. (1995)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1800's shallow vents; 1995 deeper vents ROV Comex
Discovery References (text): 
References from the 1800's in: Italiano, F. and Nuccio, P.M., 1991. Geochemical investigations of submarine volcanic exhalations to the east of Panarea, Aeolian Islands, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 46, pp. 125–141, doi:10.1016/0377-0273(91)90079-F
Gamberi F., Marani M., Savelli S. (1997) Tectonic, volcanic and hydrothermal features of a submarine portions of the Aeolian Arc, Marine Geology, 140, 167-181
Marani et al., 1997, Shallow-water polymetallic sulfide deposits in the Aeolian island arc, Geology 25 (1997), pp. 815–818.
Other References (text): 
Acunto, S., Maltagliati, F., Cinelli, F., 1995. Osservazioni sui popolamenti bentonici di un’area interessata da attivita idrotermale nei pressi dell’Isola di Panarea (Isole Eolie). Biol. Mar. Mediterr. 3, 434–436
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367
Dekov, V. M. and C. Savelli (2004) Hydrothermal activity in the SE Tyrrhenian Sea: an overview of 30 years of research. Marine Geology 204: 161-185, doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00355-4
Gugliandolo, C. et al. (2006) The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy): biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids-sea bottom interface. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 49, N. 2/3, 783-792
Petersen et al. (2008) Drilling submarine hydrothermal systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. InterRidge News 17: 21-23
Monecke et al. (2009) Shallow submarine hydrothermal systems in the Aeolian Volcanic Arc, Italy. Eos 90: 110-111
Merkel et al. (2009) White smoker at 20 m water depth at Panarea´s submarine volcano, Aeolian island, Italy. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2009
Amend et al. (2009) Archaea, Bacteria, and Sulfur-Cycling in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Ecosystem. AGU Fall Meeting ID# B21D-05.