calc-alkaline basalt, high-K andesite
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description:
several deposits of pyrite-barite, Cu sulfides in sediments from summit calderas of submerged volcano; Eckhardt et al. (1997): "A TV profile on Palinuro showed the occurrence of yellow (Fe oxyhydroxide or nontronite), black (Mn oxide), and white (sulfate) halos in the sediment and opaqueness in the overlying water."; Petersen et al. (2008): "TV-guided grab sampling at Palinuro retrieved warm (Tmax = 60 C) native sulphur cemented sediments indicating that hydrothermal activity is ongoing in the study area."; Walker et al. (2011): "An ORP anomaly of -160 mv was located at the west end of Palinuro where vent fluids up to 54 C were found. Living tubeworms, bacterial mats of various colors and textures, and small chimneys and globular spires coated with iron oxide having bright-green interiors indicative of the iron-rich hydrothermal clay nontronite were found at actively venting areas on Palinuro."; Carey et al. (2012): "tubeworms (siboglinidae) in the vicinity of ... (54 C) venting on the western end of Palinuro Seamount", "On Palinuro’s eastern end, there was also evidence of low-temperature hydrothermal venting from spires up to 30 cm in height. ... The discovery of active venting at each summit along most of Palinuro’s 50 km length..."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
siboglinid tubeworms at low temperature vent site (630-650 m depth)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2006 ROV Cherokee; 1968 manganese crust only; 1984 deposits only; 1993 TV profile did not confirm
Discovery References (text):
(ROV Cherokee) Petersen et al. (2008) Drilling submarine hydrothermal systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. InterRidge News 17: 21-23.
(manganese crust only) KIDD and H. ARMANNSON (1979) Manganese and iron micronodules from a volcanic seamount in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 136, 71-76.
(deposits only) Minniti, M. and F. Bonavia (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean): Is the mineralization related to porphyry-coppers or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology 59: 271-282.
(TV profile) ECKHARDT et al. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro Seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine georesources & geotechnology 15: 175-208.
Other References (text):
Tufar (1991) Paragenesis of complex massive sulfide ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft 84: 265-300
Dando et al. (1999) Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea. Progr. Oceanogr. 44: 333-367
Dekov, V. M. and C. Savelli (2004) Hydrothermal activity in the SE Tyrrhenian Sea: an overview of 30 years of research. Marine Geology 204: 161-185, doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00355-4
Monecke et al. (2009) Shallow submarine hydrothermal systems in the Aeolian Volcanic Arc, Italy. Eos 90: 110-111.
Lupton, J. et al. (2011) Active hydrothermal discharge on the submarine Aeolian Arc. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 116, B02102, 22 PP., doi:10.1029/2010JB007738.
Carey, S.N., et al. (2012) Submarine Volcanoes of the Aeolian Arc, Tyrrhenian Sea. Oceanography, 25(1), Suppl. 32-33.
Walker, S. et al. (2011) Near-bottom water column anomalies associated with active hydrothermal venting at Aeolian arc volcanoes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. AGU Fall Meeting, abstract OS51D-1906.