basalt to basaltic andesites
Notes on Vent Field Description:
southern Mariana Arc; Brimstone Pit (eruption observed 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009); eruption plastered the ROV with molten sulfur; blog and videos from 2009 cruise: http://nwrota2009.blogspot.com/2009/04/fire-and-brimstone.html; Butterfield et al. (2007): "The hydrothermal system at NW Rota-1 represents a direct connection to a sub-seafloor magma body, and is one of the only known sites in the world where we can directly sample the solid, liquid and gaseous products of a submarine magmatic hydrothermal system. Fluids (30 to 260 deg C) sampled directly from an eruptive vent have pH as low as 1.0, with a high content of particulate sulfur, excess sulfurous and sulfuric acid, and very low H2S content."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2004 ROV ROPOS; 2003 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only): Embley, R et al (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40
(ROV) Embley, R et al (2006) Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. Nature 441: 494-497.
Other References (text):
Embley, RW et al. (2007) Exploring the submarine ring of fire Mariana Arc - Western Pacific. Oceanography 20(4): 68-79
Butterfield, D. et al. (2007) Sulfur Lakes and Sulfur-rich Volcanic Hydrothermal Systems on the Mariana Arc. Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V34B-03.