Notes on Vent Field Description:
also reported as Izu-Bonin Arc; southeast end of ridge extending from Minami-Iwo-jima island, Izu Ogasawara Shoto; two large cones on NW and NE rims of 3-km diam. caldera with prominent southern rim; larger NW cone site of main hydrothermal plume; observed liquid sulfur pools at Naraku with ROV Hyper-Dolphin in 2005 (first time liquid sulfur ever observed on the seafloor), temperature > 200 C
Notes Relevant to Biology:
siboglinid tubeworms, cynoglossid fish (tonguefish), bythograeid crabs, stalked barnacles, only dead mussel shells as of Kojima (2002) review; relatively high density of chemosynthetic life for a seafloor volcano (NOAA cruise report 2006)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1992 submersible Shinkai 6500; 1979 first observed discolored water above the seamount
Discovery References (text):
[HASHIMOTO J. and K. FUJIKURA (1992) Vent communities at the Suiyo Seamount, Mokuyo Seamount and Nikko Seamount. Abstract Papers, the 8th symposium of Shinkai 2000 study, JAMSTEC, 48-51 (In Japanese)].
Other References (text):
Kojima (2002) Deep-Sea Chemoautosynthesis-Based Communities in the Northwestern Pacific. Journal of Oceanography 58: 343-363
Embley, R et al (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40
NOAA "Submarine Ring of Fire" cruise report (2006): http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06fire/logs/summary/media/srof06_cruisereport_final.pdf
Embley, RW et al. (2007) Exploring the submarine ring of fire Mariana Arc - Western Pacific. Oceanography 20(4): 68-79.