PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Muench et al. (1999): "Products of former hydrothermal activity were sampled in the fourth segment of the Central Indian Ridge", "located and sampled the first massive sulfides in the entire Indian Ocean region", "detailed mapping, ocean bottom photography and sampling revealed that the SF is flanked by two adjacent hydrothermal sites; the hydrothermal region was referred to as ‘MESO zone' after the RV Meteor and RV Sonne. The MESO zone...covers an area of about 0.6 km2, and contains three different sites with evidence of hydrothermalism, the ‘Talus-Tips-Site' (TTS) in the northern, the SF in the central and the ‘Smooth Ground' (SG) in the southern part of the mineralized zone"; Halbach and Halbach (2002): "The Sonne Field appears to be a typical mid-ocean ridge massive sulfide occurrence with black and white smoker mineralizations; it is now, however, in a state of physical and chemical disintegration, and therefore depleted in anhydrite."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1993 TV grab and water column measurements
Discovery References (text):
Halbach et al. (1995) The Sonne Field - First massive sulfides in the Indian Ocean. InterRidge News 4(2): 12-15.
Other References (text):
Muench et al. (1999) Mineralogical and geochemical features of sulfide chimneys from the MESO zone, Central Indian Ridge. Chemical Geology 155: 29-44.
Halbach and Muench (2000) Mineral deposits at 23 S, Central Indian Ridge: mineralogical features, chemical composition, and isotopic investigations. Chap. 12 in Cronan, D., ed. Handbook of marine mineral deposits, p. 327-346.
Halbach and Halbach (2002) INDIAN OCEAN HYDROTHERMAL MINERAL DEPOSITS: CU-RICH AND EPITHERMAL AU-/AG-ENRICHED OCCURRENCES. Abstract No. 194-6. GSA 2002 Denver Annual Meeting.