Notes on Vent Field Description:
Maug Islands are the subaerial expression of the submerged caldera rim; low temperature vent (Embley et al. 2007); 45-63 C at vent openings at 10-m depth (CRED report 2010); vents at 10-m depth were discovered on CRED's MARAMP cruise in 2003, and are being studied in the context of present day ocean acidification within a coral reef ecosystem (CRED report 2010); Lupton et al. (2014): "2003, when a single hydrocast in the caldera detected a strong suspended particle and helium plume... ~180 meters depth, clearly indicating hydrothermal activity within the caldera. In 2004... two ROPOS dives discovered and sampled low temperature (~4 C) diffuse venting associated with bacterial mats on the NE flank of the central pinnacle at 145 m depth. Four vertical casts lowered into the caldera in 2004 all had a strong 3He... at 150-190 meters depth... recent expedition in 2014 focused on the shallow (~10 m) gas venting along the caldera interior... single vertical cast in 2014 had a maximum 3He... at 140 m depth... decrease is possibly due to recent flushing of the caldera by a storm event, or may reflect a decrease in the deep hydrothermal activity"; located within U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (http://www.fws.gov/marianastrenchmarinemonument/)
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2003 SCUBA shallow vents; 2004 ROV ROPOS deeper vents; 2003 plume only deeper vents
Discovery References (text):
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2010) Coral reef ecosystems of the Mariana Archipelago: a 2003-2007 overview. NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-10-002, 38 p. (CRED report 2010)
(ROV) Chadwick, W. et al. (2004) The Geologic Setting of Hydrothermal Vents at Mariana Arc Submarine Volcanoes: High-Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2004, abstract #V43F-06.
(plume only) Embley, R et al (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40.
Other References (text):
Embley, RW et al. (2007) Exploring the submarine ring of fire Mariana Arc - Western Pacific. Oceanography 20(4): 68-79.
Lupton, J., et al. (2014) Gas Chemistry of Submarine Hydrothermal Venting at Maug Caldera, Mariana Arc. AGU Fall Meeting, abstract V21A-4705.