LTH, amorphous silica and Fe & Mn rich crusts
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Coastal Papua New Guinea; Studt (1961): "The most striking hydrothermal feature is the complete absence of hot springs more than a foot or two above sea level. The springs occur typically along the shoreline between high- and low-water levels, ...there are many parts of the Matupi-Rapindik shore-line where bubbling and upwelling of hot water can be seen"; Ferguson & Lambert (1972) sampled sediments and fluids
Notes Relevant to Biology:
see Tarasov et al. (1999)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1961 or earlier intertidal
Discovery References (text):
Studt, F. E. (1961) Preliminary survey of the hydrothermal field at Rabaul, New Britain. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 4:3, 274-282, DOI:10.1080/00288306.1961.10423128.
[Ferguson & Lambert, Econ. Geol., 67, 25-37, 1972, Volcanic Exhalations and Metal Enrichments at Matupi Harbor, New Britain, T.P.N.G.]
Other References (text):
Tarasov, V.G., et al. (1999) Effect of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on the biota of Matupi Harbor (Rabaul Caldera, New Britain Island, Papua-New Guinea). Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 79-116.