NFS, Fe & Mn crusts and mounds
Notes on Vent Field Description:
off-axis hydrothermal mounds; mound-like deposits of Fe & Mn oxides; Tovey and Dadey (2002): "Activity is concentrated on a 1 km× 0.5 km ×50 m high topographic high located on 3 million year crust west of the active spreading centre"; Wheat and McDuff (1995): "Extensive observations from DSRV Alvin establish that warm fluids (about 12.5 C) upflow through sediments in the Mariana Mounds area."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
[Leinen et al. (1987) Off-axis hydrothermal activity in the Mariana Mounds field, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 68 (1987), p. 1531].
Other References (text):
Wheat and McDuff (1995) Mapping the fluid flow of the Mariana Mounds ridge flank hydrothermal system: Pore water chemical tracers. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 100, NO. B5, PAGES 8115-8131
Tovey and Dadey (2002) Quantitative orientation and micro-porosity analysis of recent marine sediment microfabric. Quaternary International 92: 89-100 .