Notes on Vent Field Description:
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1984 plume only; 2009 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only) Klinkhammer et al. (1985) Hydrothermal manganese plumes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley. Nature 314: 727-731
(plume only) Beltenev et al. (2009) New data about hydrothermal fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 11- 14 N: 32nd Cruise R/V Professor Logatchev. InterRidge News 18: 13-17.