Notes on Vent Field Description:
cone within Macauley Caldera, venting at summit, also has flank vent fields 200-400 m below the summit; Wright et al. (2006): "A 700-m wide and 300-m high post-caldera cone coalesces with the inner eastern caldera wall, sited within 1.5 km of the island shoreline."; de Ronde et al. (2007): "submersible dives during April 2005 at Macauley cone (see http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/) showed this site was precipitating large amounts of elemental sulfur"; located in New Zealand's Kermadec Benthic Protection Area, http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Seabed+Protection+and+Research/Benthic+Protection+Areas.htm, accessed 13 May 2015
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2002 towed camera TAN0205 cruise
Discovery References (text):
Wright, I. C., et al. (2006), New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°–35°S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 149, 263–296.
Other References (text):
[Von Cosel, R., Marshall, B.A., 2003. Two new species of large mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from active submarine volcanoes and a cold seep off the eastern North Island of New Zealand, with description of a new genus. Nautilus 117, 31– 46]
C. de Ronde et al. 2007, Submarine hydrothermal activity along the mid-Kermadec Arc, New Zealand: Large-scale effects on venting. G3, 8(Q07007), doi: 10.1029/2006GC001495.
de Ronde, C.E.J., et al., 2015, Molten sulfur lakes of intraoceanic arc volcanoes. In: Volcanic Lakes, D. Rouwet, B. Christenson, F. Tassi and J. Vandelbroulemuck (eds), 261-288, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-36833-2_11, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.