Notes on Vent Field Description:
volcanic island in rifted fore-arc; Pichler and Humphrey (2001): "Focused, vigorous discharge of gas from vent orifices, 20-50 cm in diameter, was observed at six locations. A possible discharge of clear liquid associated with the gases is inferred from observations of shimmering above vent orifices. ... Temperatures at the point of discharge range from 60 to 96 C. Sites of gas exhalation are marked by small funnel-shaped indentations (i.e., conical depressions) in the sandy bottom. ... Two types of hydrothermal precipitates are predominant around the submarine vents: (1) Fe-sulfides... and (2) dolomite"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
[Moyle A J, Doyle B J, Hoogvliet H, Ware A R, 1990, Ladolam gold deposit, Lihir Island, in Hughes FE (Ed.), 1990 Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia & Papua New Guinea The AusIMM, Melbourne Mono 14, v2 pp 1793-1805.]
Other References (text):
Pichler et al. (1999) Fe sulfide formation due to seawater-gas-sediment interaction in a shallow-water hydrothermal system at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Economic Geology 94: 281-288
Pichler and Humphrey (2001) FORMATION OF DOLOMITE IN RECENT ISLAND-ARC SEDIMENTS DUE TO GAS–SEAWATER–SEDIMENT INTERACTION. JOURNAL OF SEDIMENTARY RESEARCH, VOL. 71, NO. 3, P. 394–399.