Notes on Vent Field Description:
Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough; coastal, off NE Taiwan; Jeng et al. (2004): "vent discharges are highly acidic (pH 1.75–4.60) and sulphur-rich with up to nine large smokers (2–6 m in height) at any one time spewing sulphurous plumes and bubbles of gas (mainly carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide), which emerge at temperatures of 65-116 C"; Chen et al. (2005): "An estimated cluster of more than 30 vents were observed at depths of about 10-30 m. These vents were identified by scuba divers and their positions located by GPS"; "Hydrothermal fluids are mainly discharged out of edifices and yellow mounds about 2 m high and 2–3 m wide at the base. Almost pure sulfur with some α-phase crystals and trace amounts of pyrite comprise these mounds."; "The vents discharge waters as hot as 116 C and as acidic as pH 1.517."; Zhang et al. (2012): "Hydrothermal vents are located in a hilly terrain rich with hot spring water with gas erupting intermittently. There are two types of vents, roughly divided by color, yellow hot spring water with higher temperature >110 degC ejected from sulfur chimneys of various sizes, and colorless water with lower temperature ~80 degC ejected directly from the crevices of the andesitic bedrock. Natural sulfur solidifying in the mouth of a small chimney was captured by a video camera, and explosions were also observed at intervals of a few minutes."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
8 vent-endemic species (5 decapod crustaceans, 3 bivalves) listed in Wang et al. (2009) abstract; in particular shallow depth has high density crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Jeng et al. 2004)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
[Jeng, M. S. (2000) Nat. World 68, 38-45 (in Chinese)
Song, S. R., & Yang, C. Y. (2000) Nat. World 68, 14-19]
Other References (text):
Jeng, M.-S., et al. (2004) Feeding behaviour: Hydrothermal vent crabs feast on sea 'snow'. Nature 432: 969
Chen, C.-T.A. et al. (2005) Tide-influenced acidic hydrothermal system offshore NE Taiwan. Chemical Geology 224: 69-81
Wang, T.W. et al. (2009) The hydrothermal vent and cold seep fauna of Taiwan, and their possible food chain relationships, abstract in 4th CBE Symposium
Chen et al. (2005) Acta Oceanologica Sinica 24: 125-133.
Zhang, J. et al. (2012) Shallow water submarine hydrothermal activity - A case study in the assessment of ocean acidification and fertilization. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #OS42A-07.