LTH, silica, native sulfur precipitates
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Coastal Russia (Yankich Island); submerged caldera; precipitates of silica and native sulfur around active vents (up to 40°C); hydrothermal activity around the crater is largely fumarolic with maximum temperatures below boiling point
Notes Relevant to Biology:
high faunal concentration: echinoderms, bivalves, cerianths; bacterial mats; biological reserve established 1988
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
Zhirmunsky, AV and Tarasov, VG (1990) Unusual marine ecosystem in the flooded crater of Ushisher volcano. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 65: 95-102.
Other References (text):
Chertkova & Guseva, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSR, 290, 1229-1233, 1986, Role of underwater thermal vents in forming the gas-hydrochemical composition of seawater in the Kurile island arc (English Translation in DAN p. 238-241).
Tarasov et al. (1990) Shallow-Water Gasohydrothermal Vents of Ushishir Volcano and the Ecosystem of Kraternaya Bight (The Kurile Islands). Marine Ecology 11: 1-23.
Glasby, GP et al. (2006) Submarine hydrothermal activity and mineralization on the Kurile and western Aleutian island arcs, N.W. Pacific. Mar Geol 231(1-4): 163-180.