Notes on Vent Field Description:
location from Global Volcanism Program; McConachy et al. (2004): "Subdued evidence of hydrothermal activity was found in the Sunda Strait associated with the famous Krakatau volcano and the extension of the seismically active Semangko Fault", "The seawater column within the Krakatau caldera is 5°C to 8°C warmer, slightly less saline and more turbid than water elsewhere at these depths in the Sunda Strait, indicating that Krakatau is hydrothermally active"; 7 July 2012 news release, http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/krakatau/news/10294/Anak-Krakatau-volcano-Indonesia-activity-update-lava-dome-has-disappeared-new-hydrothermal-vents.html, accessed 2 June 2015: "a number (at least 4) areas with apparent submarine hydrothermal iron-bearing vents were observed that had not been there last year. In these areas, bubbling could be seen in the water, and where accessible, iron-rich greenish warm mud was found at the sea floor, which oxidized to orange when brought to the surface. The sea water around these areas had an intense yellow stain. Very similar submarine activity is known from around Nea Kameni island, Santorini."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2002 CTD/transmissometer and dredge only
Discovery References (text):
(plume and dredge only) McConachy, T. F., H. Permana, R. A. Binns, I. Zulkarnain, J. M. Parr, C. J. Yeats, N. D. Hananto, B. Priadi, S. Burhanuddin, and E. P. Utomo (2004) Recent Investigations of Submarine Hydrothermal Activity in Indonesia. PACRIM 2004, Adelaide, SA, 19-22 September 2004, 161- 172.
Other References (text):
McConachy et al., AOGS abstract, The Management of Minerals and Biological Resources Associated With Submarine Hydrothermal Systems in Indonesia (http://www.asiaoceania.org/abstract/oa/58-OA-A3026.pdf).