Notes on Vent Field Description:
in Tokara Island group; Hoaki et al. (1995): "study area was shallow, and the sea floor was covered with sand through which hot volcanic gas bubbled and geothermally heated water seeped out", "bacterial density increased with depth in the sediments in parallel with a rise in the ambient temperature (80(deg)C at the surface and 104(deg)C at a depth of 30 cm in the sediments"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
microbiology in Hoaki et al. (1995)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1993 or earlier, likely by SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
Other References (text):
Hoaki, T. et al. (1995) Dense Community of Hyperthermophilic Sulfur-Dependent Heterotrophs in a Geothermally Heated Shallow Submarine Biotope near Kodakara-Jima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(5): 1931–1937.