Notes on Vent Field Description:
innermost axis coincides with a narrow depression <1 km wide and <100 m deep; "Kilo Moana vent field sits approximately 500 m west of the inferred spreading axis on a short (15 m), wide (2 km) and slightly asymmetric bathymetric high that is steeper on its western side"; "Confirmed hydrothermal activity at Kilo Moana (from ROV visual observations) extends N-S over a distance of approximately 130 m, with three localized areas of focused high-temperature venting and diffuse flow separated by the two fissures"; Lau Geomicrobiology cruise website, accessed 13 May 2015, http://laugeomicro2015.blogspot.com/2015/04/kilo-moana-big-surprise.html: "we returned to sites we visited in 2005 and 2009, where there had been active deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Our first site yielded: extinct sulfide structures, lots of mussels, many dead mussels, occasional crabs... The entire area was no longer active; snuffed out between 2009 and now."; Eastern Lau Spreading Center was USA Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site
Notes Relevant to Biology:
snails, mussels, zoanthids, barnacles, shrimp, microbial mats (photograph in German et al. 2008)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2004 AUV ABE; 2004 plume only on previous cruise
Discovery References (text):
Wiens, D., et al. (2005) Status report on the Lau Basin ISS. Ridge 2000 Newsletter, Spring 2005: 11-13
(plume only): Baker et al., GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 33, L07308, doi:10.1029/2005GL025283, 2006, Abundant hydrothermal venting along melt-rich and melt-free ridge segments in the Lau back-arc basin
German, CR et al. (2008) Hydrothermal exploration with the Autonomous Benthic Explorer. DSR I 55: 203-219.
Other References (text):
Ferrini, V. et al. (2008) Variable morphologic expression of volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes at six hydrothermal vent fields in the Lau back-arc basin. GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS, VOL. 9, Q07022, doi:10.1029/2008GC002047.