Notes on Vent Field Description:
bubbling vents with temperatures initially reported in excess of 270 C, then reported as greater than 250 C in Carey et al. (2014); 2003 expedition: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03kickem/welcome.html; [this quote is missing source reference: "Venting, documented by ROV photographs and temperature measurements, occurred through fissures (up to tens of meters long) in the basaltic seafloor and also through fine-grained sediments and coarse-grained brecciated deposits. Hydrothermal venting appeared to be confined to a small inner crater within the larger main crater of the volcano, especially along the base of the scarp that descended from the rim on the western side. Venting was not observed on the flanks of the volcano or in secondary craters"]; however, both the Halbach et al. (2002) and Koschinsky (2007) articles indicate that there may be venting on the flanks; 2013 Nautilus Expedition reported cold seeps at 1960-1975 m depth on the flanks (Carey et al. 2014); videos online from 2013 Nautilus Expedition, e.g., http://www.nautiluslive.org/album/2013/11/03/kickem-jenny-dive-two-highlights, and 2014 Nautilus Expedition, e.g., http://www.nautiluslive.org/video/2014/09/17/kick-em-jenny-volcano-60-seconds, accessed 28 May 2015
Notes Relevant to Biology:
http://www.gso.uri.edu/kej/biology.html, accessed 28 May 2015: "The Biology of Kick'em Jenny"; Carey et al. (2014): "In general, the diversity and abundance of macrofauna surrounding the vents within the crater was relatively low."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2003 ROV Eastern Oceanics; 1989 submersible Johnson-Sea-Link II (did not confirm activity); 2001 plume only
Discovery References (text):
Sigurdsson et al., NOAA Cruise Report R/V Ronald Brown RB-03-03, 2003, http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/OEDV/Kick%27em_Jenny_Volcano_2003/doc/Cruise_Report.pdf, accessed 28 May 2015.
Wishner, K. et al. (2005) Are midwater shrimp trapped in the craters of submarine volcanoes by hydrothermal venting? Deep-Sea Res I 52: 1528-1535.
Other References (text):
Halbach et al. (2002) Submarine Hydrothermal Mineralisations and Fluids off the Lesser Antilles Island Arc – Initial Results from the CARIBFLUX Cruise SO 154. InterRidge News 11(1): 18-22.
Carey, S. and Sigurdsson, H. (2007) Exploring submarine arc volcanoes. Oceanography 20(4): 80-89.
Koschinsky, A. (2007) Hydrothermal fluid emanations from the submarine Kick'em Jenny volcano, Lesser Antilles island arc. Mar Geol 244: 129-141.
Carey, S. et al. Fluid/Gas Venting and Biological Communities at Kick’em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (West Indies), p. 38-41 in Bell, K.L.C., M.L. Brennan, and N.A. Raineault, eds. 2014. New frontiers in ocean exploration: The E/V Nautilus 2013 Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean field season. Oceanography 27(1), supplement, 52 pp, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.supplement.01.