Notes on Vent Field Description:
Cruise report RRS James Cook Cruise JC55: "Kemp Caldera is a submarine feature that lies to the west of Kemp seamount at the southern tip of the South Sandwich Island arc. In 2009, SHRIMP discovered the potential presence of hydrothermal activity during the JCR224 cruise. This was confirmed in 2010 when JC42 returned to the site with the ISIS ROV and discovered a number of different chemosynthetic habitats, including: white smoker vent fields, extensive areas of diffuse flow, and a whale fall to the NE of a small sub-cone in the centre of the crater", "fluids emanating from the Wall are only about 40°C (as sampled in 2010 on JC042)"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Cruise report RRS James Cook Cruise JC55: "SHRIMP then crossed the main vent field on the eastern slope of the volcanic knoll, observing the same biotopes found in 2010, with little apparent change in faunal composition: clam beds in sedimented areas, anemones and limpets dominating on basalts, and an extensive sponge zone towards the periphery of the assemblage."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2010 ROV Isis; 2009 plume only
Discovery References (text):
Cruise report RRS James Cook Cruise JC55