MORB, but see Nakamura et al. (2009)
Notes on Vent Field Description:
failed to find active vent on Shinkai 6500 dive in 1998; Nakamura et al. (2009): "discovered in August 2000 as the first directly observed hydrothermal vent site in the Indian Ocean"; KHF is located at the first segment of the CIR immediately north of the RTJ; situated on the western slope of the Hakuho Knoll, an off-axis knoll of the CIR, ~ 6 km north-east of the ridge axis; seven active vent sites, including black smoker complexes, over 10-m high, max temp 360C, pH 3.4 at 25 C; 40 x 80 m field; note Yokoniwa Rise just north of Kairei, and may ultimately be distinguished as separate vent field, e.g., Fujii et al. (2014): "Yokoniwa hydrothermal vent field (YHVF), located at the NTO-massif"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
shrimp (genus Rimicaris), actinarians, mytilid bivalves, galatheids (genus Munidopsis), polynoids (Branchipolynoe sp.), Alvinoconcha and Phymorhynchus snails, Austinograea crabs, other polynoid polychaetes; Among the invertebrates observed at Kairei but not at Edmond are stalked neolepadine barnacles, scaly-foot gastropods, archinomid polychaetes, nemerteans, and turbellarians.
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2000 ROV Kaiko; 1993 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only) Tamaki and Fujimoto (1994) Summary and preliminary results of the R/V Hakuho-maru KH93-3 Rodriguez Triple Junction cruise. InterRidge News 3(1): 66-8
(plume only) Gamo et al. (1996) Hydrothermal plumes at the Rodriguez triple junction, Indian ridge. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 142: 261-270
(plume only) Fujimoto et al., InterRidge News 8(1), 22-24, 1999, First submersible investigations of mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean
Gamo, T et al. (2001) Chemical characteristics of newly discovered black smoker fluids and associated hydrothermal plumes at the Rodriguez Triple Junction, Central Indian Ridge. EPSL 193(3-4): 371-379
J. Hashimoto et al. (2001) Hydrothermal vents and associated biological communities in the Indian Ocean. InterRidge News 10(1): 21-22
J. Hashimoto, et al., First hydrothermal vent communities from the Indian Ocean discovered. Zool. Sci. 18 (2001), pp. 717–721.
Other References (text):
SOHRIN et al. (1999) CTD observations to search for hydrothermal activity on the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Central Indian Ridge just north of the Rodriguez Triple Junction: the Yokosuka/Shinkai MODE'98 Leg 3 INDOYO cruise. JAMSTEC Journal of Deep Sea Research 15: 7-11
Nakamura, K. et al. (2009) Serpentinized troctolites exposed near the Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Insights into the origin of the Kairei hydrothermal fluid supporting a unique microbial ecosystem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 280: 128-136.
Fujii, M. et al. (2014) Origin of Magnetic High at Basalt-Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Vent Field in the Central Indian Ridge. AGU Fall Meeting, abstract V53A-4840.