Kagoshima Bay, Sakura-jima Volcano
Wakamiko Crater (includes Haorimushi and Tagiri)
LTH; also see Yamanaka et al. (2013)
Notes on Vent Field Description:
Coastal Japan (Kyushu Island); Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program profile 282080 Aira: "Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano... smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera"; Haorimushi (tubeworm) low-temperature site at ~80 m depth is on a knoll on E side of Wakamiko crater; Tagiri high-temperature sites at ~200 m depth include chimneys at 31 40.07' N, 130 45.70' E, about 2 km west of position of Haorimushi; Tagiri refers to bubbles noted by fishermen; Yamanaka et al. (2013): "venting fluid is composed mixture of seawater, meteoric water and magmatic water", "chimneys formed mainly talc with small amount of carbonate and anhydrite"; high concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen sulfide; tectonic setting alternatively listed as "rifted volcanic arc"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
tubeworms (Lamellibrachia satsuma), Solemyidae, polychaetes, galatheids, shrimps
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1993 towed TV system (Haorimushi site); 2007 ROV Hyper-dolphin (Tagiri site)
Discovery References (text):
Hashimoto et al., Discovery of vestimentiferan tube-worms in the euphotic zone. Zool. Sci., 10, 1063-1067, 1993.
Other References (text):
Maki, T., et al. (2006) Photo Mosaicing of Tagiri Shallow Vent Area by the AUV "Tri-Dog 1" using a SLAM based Navigation Scheme. OCEANS 2006, DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.2006.306941 (note: T. Maki, pers. comm. 2015, this paper from 2006 is referring to the Haorimushi site).
Nakaseama et al. (2008) Fluid-Sediment Interaction in a Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal System in the Wakamiko Submarine Crater, South Kyushu, Japan. Resource Geology 58: 289-300.
Yamanaka, T. et al. (2013) Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity with significant contribution of magmatic water producing talc chimneys in the Wakamiko Crater of Kagoshima Bay, southern Kyushu, Japan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 258, 74–84, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.04.007.