Notes on Vent Field Description:
the Ischia Volcanic complex is SW of Campi Flegrei, both within the Phlegrean Volcanic District (D'Antonio et al. 2007); Hall-Spencer et al. (2008): in situ experiments on CO2 exposure to benthic fauna/flora, note that this article states that they studied "cold vent areas off Ischia"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
see Hall-Spencer et al. (2008)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1954 or earlier, from the beach
Discovery References (text):
Other References (text):
D'Antonio, M. et al. (2007) Components and processes in the magma genesis of the Phlegrean Volcanic District, southern Italy. Geological Society of America Special Papers 418: 203-220.
Hall-Spencer, J.M. et al. (2008) Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454: 96-99, doi:10.1038/nature07051.
Dando, P. R. (2010) Biological communities at marine shallow-water vent and seep sites. In: Kiel, S. (Ed.) The vent and seep biota – from microbes to ecosystems. Topics in Geobiology 33: 33-378. Springer.