Notes on Vent Field Description:
Fe & Mn crusts on seamounts of Hawaiian Ridge; Hein et al. (1996): "This is the first article to describe mineralization of midplate submarine rift zones and hydrothermal manganese oxide mineralization of midplate volcanic edifices. Hydrothermal Mn oxides were recovered from submarine extensions of two Hawaiian rift zones, along Haleakala and Puna Ridges."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
[Hein et al., in Geology and Resource Potential of the Continental Margin of Western North America and Adjacent Ocean Basins, 3-771, 1987]
Other References (text):
Hein et al. (1996) Hydrothermal mineralization along submarine rift zones, Hawaii. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology 14: 177-203.